Thursday, November 28, 2019
All over the world, disparities between the rich and poor, even in the wealthiest of nations is rising sharply. Fewer people are becoming increasingly "successful" and wealthy while a disproportionately larger population is also becoming even poorer. There are many issues involved when looking at poverty. It is not simply enough (or correct) to say that the poor are poor due to their own (or their government's) bad governance and management. In fact, you could quite easily conclude that the poor are poor because the rich are rich and have the power to enforce trade agreements, which favor their interests more than the proper nations. This is a very serious problem in our society today. Poverty is everywhere and it needs to reduced so that our economy will be more stabilized and balanced that it has been. What does it mean to be poor? What does it mean to describe a nation as "developing"? A lack of material wealth does not define one as deprived. A strong economy in a developed nation does not mean much when a significant percentage or a majority of the population is struggling to survive. Development usually implies an improvement in living standards such that a person has enough food, water, and clothing, a stable social environment, freedom, and basic rights to have a fair chance for a decent life. Is this actually progress? On the other hand, are we fooled into believing that it is? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services placed the poverty level for a family of four at $16,450 in 1998, and the poverty rate in 1996, according to the HHS, was 13.7 percent, or 36.5 million Americans. (Egendorf: 1999, 12). Is there really a way to measure poverty, and to decide exactly what poverty is? Hunger, income level, housing and the economy's condition of the working poor are just a few example of what needs to be considered when measuring the poverty levels in our nation. Poverty expands and contracts and its definition changes in accordance with temporary exigencies, including the interests of those who propound the definitions do the counting, which means that there is no concrete definition of poverty, except for the numbers. (Valentine: 1968, 13). Poverty is not something that has just recently become an issue; it has been around for many years. The economy has been a major influence on the levels of poverty in our nation. In 1973, poverty increased because then the economy worsened. Real wages and productivity decreased, and the economy could not grow fast enough to absorb the large number of potential workers, which caused unemployment to increase (Katz: 1989, 154). Ever since then our government has tried to reduce the poverty in our nation, and so far has had a hard time. In 1996, Bill Clinton addressed the welfare bill, and that resulted in an estimated one million children being thrown into poverty (Egendorf: 1999, 19). However, assistance from the Government has also been helpful. Programs such as Social Security, Food stamps, housing assistance are safety nets that has helped lower the high risk of poverty. Without these added benefits, people would be a lot worse than they are now. The safety net programs reduced the child poverty rate from 24% before the benefits were counted down to 16% (Egendorf: 1999, 19). Supplemental Security income, local general assistance, and earned income tax credits have also been popular components of income in the United States (Lynn, McGeary: 1990, 235). Education levels are not as high in urban areas, which means that the people who are living in these areas are not qualified for the high paying jobs. High skilled jobs are beyond the reach of those who live in areas of concentrated poverty, and those who are going for the high skilled jobs, are finding their way out of these areas of concentrated poverty. Higher standard of living also attracts immigrants, which makes it hard for people living in urban areas to find good paying jobs, because the immigrants will work for lower wages. What about the myth that America is the land of opportunity? With such a high standard of living, many believe this is not true (Shein: 1998, 13). Those who work hard and have
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Albert Camus essays The Stranger represents in many ways, Camus style of Existentialism and his philosophical notion of absurdity. The absurd by Camus definition is what describes humanitys attempts to place rationalization or reasoning to important aspects of the human condition such as the need for government, religion, and a realization of the physical or natural world. All of this is absurd because Camus idea of Existentialism states that there is absolutely no inherent meaning given to any of these fundamentals whereas humanity is found to have the need to place them in a certain order or rationalize the existence of such. Meursault is the character in Camus novel, The Stranger who deals with the world in a way that seems confusing at first, but whose personality becomes clearer as we progress deeper into the realm of Existentialism and Camus notion of absurdity. What is it exactly about Meursaults character that which prevents him from finding meaning given to his life by religion, nature, or government? We see in the novel that Meursault has a different way of looking not only at the world around him, but also how he sees himself in his own mind. This unique view is the key to this novel and the beliefs that Camus is trying to convey. It is apparent from the very beginning of the novel in Part One, that there are small yet significant perceptive differences in the way that Meursault interacts with his environment. He sees the world around him without any kind of rationale or reasoning within it, and his thoughts and emotions reflect this trait as well. Therefore, the news of the death of his mother does not affect him as it would someone who possesses an ability to reason or find meaning in life or death. In the beginning of the second chapter of The Stranger, Meursault first encounters Marie, who is an old co-worker and here, Camu s allows us to see an example of the character&apo...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Principles of learning - Essay Example Before one successfully complete the course, he is given practical teaching lesson where he is supervised as he teaches a class at least four times. At the end of each practical teaching assessment is done, the student teacher is given feedback and areas that he needs to be improved are highlighted. One is allowed to go ahead and complete stage 3 at the institute of education after completing the stage 2. While studying stage 2 however, assessment is continuously done throughout the course to ensure that the students' performance is monitored. While studying principles of education, a teacher is able to understand his students and for this case, he is able to teach them in the best way possible to enhance their understanding. The teacher is also able to understand his students' abilities, potential and learning need for the sake of achieving their objectives of transferring knowledge to them. At the end of the course, the teacher should be in a position to apply various methods and techniques for learning, teaching, assessment and evaluation. For this case, the teacher will be in a better position to use his/her skill in his teaching profession for the sake of achieving the already laid down teaching objectives. ... s case, he is able to ensure that all the content that is required to be cover in a particular period of time is covered and the learning objectives are achieved at the end of a term or a course. The teacher is also able to apply his own innovative ways of teaching by use of information technology in order to facilitate him to achieve his teaching goals and objectives. He is able to brainstorm against various teaching methods that can be used in class in order to achieve his objective. These can be done by collecting various teaching techniques that he can use for teaching and this in turn help him to land on the best technique to use in the class. This ensures that his teaching objectives are achieved at the end of the course. After a teacher undergoes the stage 2 principle of learning, he is able to know his potential for the sake of developing it and eventually be able to achieve his teaching objectives. He reflects on his own experience and this enable him/her to be able to achieve his teaching objectives. Still at the end of the course, the teacher develops his own interpersonal and communication skills. This is achieved as a result of the teaching practical sessions that are compulsory for them to undergo before they complete the course. Due to this, the teachers are in a position of handling their duties in professional way with a lot of confidence. 2 During the course, the teacher are made aware of their professional roles as teachers and this enable them to handle students in the recommended ways according to the laid down rules and regulations. The teachers are taught on how to handle students so that they achieve their teaching objectives. They are taught on how they are able to prepare for their lessons in a professional ways so that when they are in
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Accounting Case Study - Essay Example In order to increase profitability of the business, the company should reduce the cost of salaries and wages (Maher, Stickney, & Weil 139). Also, miscellaneous expenses are too high and thus the manager should establish the cause of such an extreme cost. Furthermore, the CEO can control development cost of producing books by apportioning production cost to the number of books at various stages (Maher, Stickney, & Weil 142). They should differentiate between direct and indirect cost. All the direct costs associated with each unit produced should be added directly at each production stage while the indirect cost incurred at each stage of production in each department should be distributed to respective department (Maher, Stickney, & Weil 158). Apportioning the production cost at different stages will enable the CCP Publishers to establish the actual cost of finished products instead. The estimated profitability of books at the time of signing contract is an estimate of finished goods w hile actual cost may be inclusive of work in progress and unsold stock. The company should determine the factors responsible for high cost and establish measures to reduce the cost. For example, the salaries and wages may have increased due to contracting out of most its activities. The management can decrease the value by offering such services internally instead of contracting out (Maher, Stickney, & Weil
Sunday, November 17, 2019
2. Why, when and by whom was the NAACP founded Assess its effectiveness - Essay Example The founders included WEB Dubois (African American), William English Walling (Caucasian) and Ida Wells-Barnett (German-born Caucasian). Other White liberals who participated in the formation include Mary White and Henry Moscowitz. Early members of NAACP include Jane Addams, Mary Talbert, Charles Russell, George White and Ray Baker. Following the Niagara Movement (1905) objectives, NAACP clearly stated that it was focused on ensuring civil rights of all people that were provided by 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments of the Constitution that provided equal legal rights and abolishment of slavery2. In 1915, NAACP petitioned showing of the birth of a nation film. In 1919, NAACP organized a symposium and published the Ã¢â¬Å"thirty years of lynching in the United States 1899-1918Ã¢â¬ . NAACP supported the Anti-lynching bill that was destined to ending instances of lynching in America but the Senate rejected the bill. Another notable contribution was involvement in Harlem Renaissance where Black Americans wanted more rights to engage in artistic and intellectual activities in the society. Through the tireless efforts of NAACP, many Blacks became respected authors, dancers, singers and artists in 1920s and 1930s. NAACP also helped the minority households who faced harsh economic situation during the Great Depression by advocating for the reduction in taxes. The organization campaigned for the end of racial discrimination in the armed forces and other State defense industries. President Roosevelt finally accepted to allow minorities to participate in thousands of State jobs after NAACP threatened to organize public marches in 1941. The struggle for equality in employment led to the establishment of Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) that was supposed to ensure fairness in employment matters3. NAACP participated in ending racial segregation. Thurgood Marshall, the head of educational and legal defense fund,
Friday, November 15, 2019
Elderly Patient on Psychotic Depression ward In this assignment I will be carrying out a Critical Incident Analysis on an incident taken from my portfolio that was encountered whilst in practice placement. This type of analysis was first used to analyse flying missions by pilots, as a way of raising their performance (Flanagan, 1954), in more recent years Norman et al. (1992) and Perry (1997) described this type of analysis as being an important and valid tool for use in nurse training, as it allows the student to choose and use an incident that made an impact on them, from their practice placement that was either positive or negative, so that they can analyse, reflect on and learn from it, showing their development as a practitioner and a person whilst linking theory to practice and helping them move from novice to expert, as outlined by Benner (1984) . Model used for reflection For the purpose of this assignment I have selected the Gibbs (1988) reflective framework model which is an iterative model meaning it is cyclical in nature, the six points covered by this model are: Describe the activity or experience in objective detail. Discuss and explore any feelings you were having at the time of the experience. Evaluate the experience: What really happened? What was good about it? What was bad? What factors contributed to the event? Analyse the experience: What can you learn from it? Conclusion: What could you have done differently? Anything you wish you had done? Wish you hadnt done? Action Plan: What can you plan on doing in the future? (Bethann, 2004, p167) This is also the model I use in my portfolio as along with critical incident analysis, it centres on reflective practice, an essential skill in nursing practice allowing situations to be analysed in detail, identifying areas of potential change, Jasper (2003) and reinforcing the need for certain practices by highlighting their benefits. I also find the logical, straightforward structure of this framework allows the reflection to be written clearly, providing opportunities to look at incidents from different perspectives. The Critical Incident Stages one and two of Gibbs model of reflection are covered here, where the incident is described along with my feelings at the time of the incident. I chose this particular incident as it put me in a very challenging position where I had to think on my feet, it made me test my abilities as a communicator and a nurse under stress, whilst highlighting the importance of some of the more basic nursing techniques like non-verbal communication through touch, educating patients to help themselves, looking out for physical signs that can indicate a patient is in distress and how working closely with a patient can earn their trust whilst building up the therapeutic relationship In order to keep the patient and the practice placement confidential, as indicated in the NMC Code of Professional Conduct (2002) and the N.M.C. guide for students (2002), the practice placement is kept anonymous and the patient will be referred to as Tom. The patients consent was also obtained, as it is the patients right to choose whether or not they wish details to be written about them, highlighted by Johnston and Slowther (2003) also outlined in section 3.7 of the N.M.C Code of conduct (2002) with reference to patients who suffer from mental illness. The patient, Tom a 72 year old man, was admitted to my practice placement suffering from Psychotic depression and anxiety, my placement is at a Psychiatric admissions ward, for patients over sixty five years old. On assisting Tom with his activities of daily living (A.D.Ls), (Roper et al, 1980) after, rising one Monday morning, It became apparent when helping Tom dress that his right arm was causing him pain, in the area of his right shoulder, I relayed this to the nursing staff who explained Tom had fallen unobserved on the Friday night and had been seen by the Doctor who on examination felt no other investigations were needed. On further discussion about his arm and the fall, between myself and Tom, he eventually admitted to having also fallen on the Sunday night and had not told anyone about it, once I had explained this to the nursing staff the Doctor was again consulted and felt that Tom should have an X-ray to rule out any broken bones. I accompanied Tom as an escort to the x-ray department where he became increasingly agitated, anxious and was mumbling to himself with delusional content of speech evident, concerning the N.H.S. which had not been known about, as Tom had only recently been admitted, he felt they (the N.H.S) were going to cause him, bodily injury (a persecutory delusion Gamble Brennan, 2003) due to his doing them out of money when he was younger, I did my best to give constant reassurance that I would not let anyone harm him, but when someone holds a delusional belief it can be very firmly maintained and difficult to dissuade from, in particular when they are in a state of high anxiety like Tom, as indicated in Stuart and Laraia (2001). I was quite worried about how the situation was going and that I might be out of my depth as I did not know Tom very well and felt a little awkward trying to reassure someone who was this distressed, feeling I was doing little or no good for him. After he had his x-ray and I was assisting him to get dressed in the x-ray cubicle the Radiologist came in and told us that Toms shoulder was broken and that we would need to go round to casualty to be seen by a Doctor there. This news made Toms level of panic escalate considerably and he began to have a panic attack in the cubicle, most likely a situationally predisposed panic attack, which occurs on exposure to a situational cue or trigger (DSM-4) Tom had become quite pale and began to perspire profusely, along with his breathing becoming very shallow and rapid to the point that he was panting, I found it quite distressing to see Tom in this condition. I had never encountered someone quite as panicked as this and I felt quite concerned. I thought calling out for someone to help might only panic him more, so I decided to try some deep breathing exercises to relax and calm him down first, then if that did not work I would seek help. I knew from reading Toms notes that he did not have a heart condition or other health problem that would have been causing these symptoms and it had been recorded that Tom suffered from panic attacks, although I was still watchful for any change in his symptoms that might indicate an alternative medical reason for his condition. Initially I sat beside Tom with my arm around him, asking him to take slow deep breaths, but with his level of panic and no eye contact meant he was not concentrating on me, so I knelt down on the floor in front of him took his hands, spoke to him gently but firmly using his name and with direct eye contact got him to focus on what we were doing. I explained his symptoms were due to his panic attack and the breathing exercises we were doing would help relax him, calm him down and make him feel better. Tom started to comply and began with my instruction, breathing in slowly through his nose holding it for a moment then breathing out slowly through his mouth. In a relatively short time his breathing began returning to normal and he started to relax, enabling us to go on to the casualty department to see about his shoulder. In the casualty department Tom still required reassurance not only verbally but also with touch as he asked me to hold his hand, bringing home the importance of this simple yet significant form of non-verbal communication and despite needing another brief set of relaxation breathing in the casualty cubicle Tom was notably calmer. I felt privileged that he had put his trust in me and that we had moved on further in our therapeutic relationship, as while waiting in casualty Tom who had hardly spoken to anyone let alone myself, began discussing how scared he had been and talked about some of his delusional beliefs, which helped me empathise with how terrified he must have been. I was also able to discuss what Tom told me with the qualified nurses on return to the ward giving a deeper insight into his condition. Critical Discussion of the Incident For this section of the Critical Incident Analysis stages three and four of Gibbs reflective framework are covered, allowing me to look at what was good and bad about the incident along with contributing factors (Gibbs 1988), I am going to discuss, analyze and reflect upon three key issues: Panic attacks, the relaxation technique of Deep breathing and Touch therapy, that were encountered during the incident and that I felt were of significant importance. Panic attacks I felt this topic was important to the critical incident as it is a common condition closely linked to anxiety which a great number of mental health patients experience often along with their main diagnosis but most commonly alongside depression as in Toms case, Clayton (1990) and Merikangas et al (1996) stated that comorbidity between panic and depression is the single strongest type of anxiety-mood comorbidity found in both treatment and in the general public. Panic attacks are often talked about and appear in patient notes but this critical incident brought home for me how absolutely terrifying and totally debilitating the panic attack was for Tom and how distressing it can be to witness a patient in this condition. Anxiety is a normal healthy reaction to the stresses of everyday life as suggested by Trevor Powel (2001) and even necessary for us to perform at our best as Yerkes-Dodsons Law (1908) explains, illustrated in the graph below. Here levels of anxiety are referred to as arousal and a direct correlation to performance is demonstrated, it tells us that if we have low levels of arousal then our performance becomes decreased (distress, as introduced by Seyle (1956)), at medium levels our performance levels peak (eustress as described by Seyle (1956)) and when our arousal levels become high our performance levels and subsequent ability to function drop again (resulting in distress) as seen in Toms situation. (Yerkes Dodson 1908) Peplau (1963) defined anxiety in four levels: Mild anxiety- everyday life stress. Moderate anxiety- Immediate concerns focused on, with narrowed perceptual field, although able to function when necessary. Severe anxiety- Greatly reduced perceptual with difficulty focusing on anything except what is causing anxiety. Panic- Person feels terror, dread as is unable to reason with the threat causing anxiety blown out of all proportion, making it almost impossible to communicate or function, with little or no control over themselves causing panic attack. Toms anxiety level was clearly at the panic stage which cannot be allowed to continue indefinitely as being in a panic attack state is not compatible with living, as described by Stuart and Laraia (2001), who believe if prolonged can result in total exhaustion or in extreme cases even death. Panic attacks affect between 3 and 5 percent of the population at some point in their lives (Lynch E, 2005). The findings of an American study carried out this year showed that people suffering from panic attacks account for around 25% of those attending casualty departments or G.Ps. (Ham, P. et al, 2005) often having trouble breathing properly as found with Tom, with most people suffering from panic attacks, stating hyperventilation as being one of their main symptoms (Holt and Andrews, 1989), or with patients believing they are having a heart attack. Toms panic attack was mainly evident by the physical symptoms he displayed, described previously, physiological symptoms often being the only visible signs of a panic attack as described by Stuart and Laraia (2001). In this instance, although Toms Psychotic Depression was the likely reason for his anxiety with the resulting panic attack, I felt trying to deescalate his anxiety levels, by getting the panic attack and hyperventilation under control was my main priority, there would have been no point in me trying to deal with his delusional beliefs at this point as this takes time and experience, of which I had neither, plus Toms panic levels were so high it was difficult for him to concentrate. Therefore it seemed logical to concentrate on something which it was perhaps possible to change. I hoped that using the deep breathing technique would be successful in helping return Toms body systems to normal which would stop the hyperventilating making Tom feel a lot better and knew that breathing techniques could be very effective but did not want to put Tom at any risk by doing so, I had to make a judgment call about how I was going to handle the situation and decided I was going to try and deal with it using the breathing exercise. Relaxation Techniques Deep breathing The next topic I am going to cover is Relaxation Techniques and the technique of Deep Breathing in particular, I feel it is important to cover this topic as it was a key factor in the outcome of the incident as by guiding Tom through the breathing technique, enabled him to control his breathing resulting in his panic attack and hyperventilating coming to an end. Toms physical symptoms indicated that he was hyperventilating or overbreathing, the mental health handbook (Trevor Powell, 2001) tells us this is a normal response to threat by our bodies to bring more oxygen to the muscles, preparing us for Fight or Flight, but if the extra O2 is not needed by the muscles, i.e. the situation is only an imagined threat as in Toms case, the normal level of gases in the blood and lungs becomes out of balance, due to breathing in to much oxygen (O2) and pushing out too much carbon dioxide (CO2), this causes the blood to become alkaline which brings on many of the unpleasant symptoms Tom was suffering from. There are several ways of overcoming hyperventilation, possibly the most commonly referred to, is breathing into a paper bag to facilitate the breathing back in of the carbon dioxide being breathed out, as explained in the Nursing Times article, Facts: Panic Attacks (2003), which also acknowledges the importance of controlling the patients breathing, Stuart and Laraia (2001) also agree that relaxation techniques are an accepted therapeutic intervention in the treatment of anxiety. Since I had no paper bag with me, I decided to use the three stage deep breathing technique to retrain Toms breathing which, Risser and Murphy (2005) agree, improves panic symptoms and associated disability, this type of breathing which is commonly used in yoga helped to slow down and control Toms breathing which also stopped him hyperventilating, it is carried out by: Inhaling slowly and deeply through your nose. When youve taken in a full breath, hold it for a moment and thenÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ Exhale slowly through the nose or mouth, depending on your preference. This action although different to the paper bag technique brings about the same desired effect, in the case of Deep Breathing carbon dioxide is not being re-breathed but the rate it is expelled by is being slowed down along with holding it a little longer in the lungs which results in the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood rising, correcting the acid/alkaline balance in the blood, which relieved Toms unpleasant symptoms, bringing his breathing rate back to normal and making him feel calmer. At the time of the incident I really hoped that the breathing technique would be successful although I was not entirely sure whether to trust my instincts and try it out. On reflection I was very impressed at how effective such a simple procedure could be and was glad not only for Toms sake but also my own that I had decided to try it out, as it gave me more confidence in my abilities as a nurse even though at the time I was carrying it out, although outwardly calm, I had felt quite anxious. Touch Therapy The final key issue I wish to highlight from the critical incident is the benefit of touch as a therapy, which I felt was vital as a way of communicating with Tom during his panic attack along with giving him reassurance that I was there for him, empathising with his situation and helping him focus on what we were trying to do. There are several terms used to describe the different types of touch used in nursing, some of which are: necessary touch which covers task and instrumental touch that is mostly used when a procedure or task needs to be carried out on a patient as opposed to non-necessary touch which is described as spontaneous and emotional physical contact between the nurse and patient, introduced by Routasalo (1996), expressive touch comes under the non-necessary touch umbrella with the same type of nurse patient contact, described by McCann McKenna (1993) which is similar again to caring and protective touch highlighted by Estabrooks (1989) and finally therapeutic touch, which is an alternative therapy similar to reiki, discussed by Meehan (1998). Nesbitt-Blondis and Jackson (1982) agree that touch is probably the most important of all non-verbal communications that we use in nursing and can be particularly useful in cases like Toms panic attack where his ability to understand and communicate was diminished, when patients are unable to communicate verbally or understand verbal communication for reasons such as dementia, those with learning or cognitive difficulties and in panic attack situations like Toms, touch can be an excellent means of communication. Unfortunately, McCann McKenna (1993) reported that in the U.K. there is little use of expressive, non-necessary or caring touch by nurses. Many nurses see touch as just something that is used when a procedure or task needs to be carried out on a patient, but Tutton (1998) suggests that touch in nursing and the powerful expressions it conveys to patients are sadly underutilised. Routasalo (1996) also suggests that non-essential touch although not absolutely essential, can be extremely important and necessary to the patient. The benefits of this type of touch in nursing are strengthened further by Moore Gilbert (1995) who found patients interpreted the use of touch by nurses as a display of affection and attention which they greatly appreciated, with patients interviewed in Routasalo Isolas (1996) study, describing touch by nurses as extremely comforting. Davidhizar Giger (1997) whilst acknowledging the important role that touch can play in the nurse patient relationship, also points out that the value of touch is not appreciated by all health professionals or considered appropriate or desirable by some patients. Bearing this in mind as long as the correct manner of touching is employed, and there is no way it could be seen as being inappropriate with the patients personal and cultural beliefs being taken into account, it is one of our most valuable communication nursing tools. The extent of physical contact carried out in a society is governed by sets of well-defined behavioural norms for whatever circumstance we find ourselves in (Pratt Mason 1981). Jourard (1966) recognised that the incidence of touching within our Western society declines from childhood onwards but Montagu (1986) discovered that the need for touch did not reduce with age. It is felt that the level of touch common in childhood can return in situations of sickness or incapacity (Barnett 1972). This may mean that, the need for touch in illness might be more important than our ideas of proper behaviour. I felt the touch element in this incident: my taking of Toms hands to help him focus, get his attention and convey my empathy, was extremely important and was in fact the turning point in the whole incident which allowed me to gain Toms trust and initiate the breathing technique which stopped him hyperventilating. I feel that without the touch element it would have been almost impossible for me to reach Tom and the outcome of the incident would have been very different. Implications for Professional and Personal Development In this final section of the Critical Incident Analysis, the two final stages of Gibbs model of reflection (1988), five and six are covered, here we look at what was learned from the incident, what could have been carried out differently or should not have been done, along with what was missed out concluding with a plan for future action. I found in utilising the Gibbs (1998) reflection tool, the impact the incident made on my personal and professional development was made much clearer. Through carrying out this Critical Incident Analysis I have been able to see what I have learned through reflection, as the Department of Health (1999) states, reflective practice is necessary in order to further our continued personal and professional development and leads to a greater understanding of our own needs. Described as a form of self discovery by Freshwater (2004) with a deeper understanding of the needs of the patient and improved patent care highlighted by Davies (1995). From this I feel the analysis made me examine my communication skills on a deeper level for although I feel that I am a natural communicator, and have had many years experience working with people suffering from dementia, I had not fully thought about the use of touch or the great importance it has in communicating with patients . Without the use of reflective practice I would not have researched into the concept of touch so fully or really understood its relevance and consequences in my nursing practice. Or recognised the significance touch played in the successful deescalating of Toms panic attack and hyperventilating in this critical incident. This Critical Incident Analysis has definitely taught me to have more faith in my abilities as a nurse but has also taught me I have more to learn as a communicator. Similarly with the topic of panic attacks which I was obviously familiar with and had some knowledge on, having been through the incident with Tom and then carrying out the reflection on the incident, allowed me to see the field of panic and anxiety disorders with a deeper understanding and much more from the patients viewpoint. Having witnessed the real distress and levels of disability it can inflict will enable me to really empathise with patients like Tom going through this type of disorder when I come across them in my future career. The area of relaxation breathing was something which I had used myself in yoga practice and did know of its benefit in anxiety situations, but I had not expected to have to start teaching it to a patient that day in the X-Ray cubicle. I was quite shocked when Tom had began hyperventilating but on reflection I should have perhaps saw it coming with his rising levels of anxiety after our arrival at the hospital, especially after I had read only that morning that he had a history of panic attacks. Again on reflection I could have asked the nursing staff the best way to deal with it should the situation arise. I have learned from this that I could have been better prepared before escorting Tom by asking questions and having a plan of action to use if necessary. I had been worried about putting Tom at risk by trying the breathing technique with him as I stated earlier, and perhaps it was wrong of me to have tried it in the first place, but I had made a judgment in an emergency situation, and I did not make the decision lightly, being aware that help was nearby should it be needed. I did not want to distress Tom further by calling out, resulting in people rushing into the cubicle and in conclusion felt the breathing exercise was worth a try, but I would have called for help quickly if it did not appear to be working. On discussing the incident and my actions back on the ward, my mentor also felt I had made the right choice. This made me think about the fact that as a nurse there are times when it is up to you to make judgment calls regarding patient care and that it is important to remember that you are accountable for your actions. To carry this level of responsibility demands a sound knowledge of practice and an ability to think calmly and clearly even under stress. I was both relived and delighted that the breathing technique worked so well for Tom and felt honoured that he decided to put his faith in me. As stated earlier, this prompted Tom to confide some of his fears to me, which showed trust on Toms part and fostered a deeper understanding of his condition on mine. This advancement of the therapeutic relationship between Tom and I has continued during my placement where I have worked quite closely with him and where I have taught him how to practice the breathing techniques when he feels calm making it easier for him to utilise in panic situations, which he has been doing with good effect. As a follow on from this incident and after seeing the efficacy of relaxation techniques in action, at my practice placement I asked my mentor if it would be possible to carry out some relaxation groups with carefully screened groups of patients who had anxiety problems. My mentor and other nursing staff thought this would be a good idea both for the benefit of the patients and for my personal and professional development. After researching the subject and finding appropriate music along with compiling a script, the groups were initiated with great success and are now regularly used on the ward, which has given me some sense of achievement and helped build my confidence in my abilities as a nurse. Along with being very beneficial in analysing this particular incident the use of reflective analysis has definitely improved my practice in placement, and although I have used this model of reflection in my portfolio for some time now, it has made me re-examine the importance keeping and using a portfolio to further my professional and personal development. I also feel this helps me to benefit more from my placement as I fully understand the concept behind reflection and use it positively as a tool rather than a task I need to perform. When using reflection now I am able to draw more insight from my experiences on placement, while previously I had only skimmed the surface of the subjects when carrying out reflection. This has increased both my self awareness and my ability to link theory and practice together. Overall, I can see clearly how reflection is a useful tool in helping nurses to focus on their skills and behaviour which consequently enables them to provide the best care possible for patients, as discussed by Somerville (2004). Action Plan Preparing and utilising action plans is an important way of improving both our personal and professional development as nurses, whilst building on improved nursing practice. To be prepared for this kind of scenario in the future I have identified the following plan of action: Make sure I know and understand all relevant information regarding patients. Have good communication with other members of staff about patients. Have a plan of action thought out for any incidents that may arise. Remain calm and consider actions carefully. Empathise with the patient by trying to understand what it would be like to be in that situation. Where possible help the patient to help themselves, i.e. by educating them to use breathing techniques so when a panic situation arises they are in a better position to take control themselves.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
Imposing Our Own Ideological Frameworks onto Virginia Woolf and Her Writing Whenever we try to imagine the feelings or motives of a writer, we impose our own thoughts and ideas, our own biases, onto that person and their work. Perhaps in order to justify our choices or legitimate the philosophies that we hold dear, we interpret texts so that they fall into place in our own ideological frameworks. Literature, because it engages with the most important and passionate questions in life, evokes responses in readers that emanate not only from the mind but also from the subconscious and from the deepest places in the heart. Writers like Virginia Woolf ask, and sometimes answer, questions about life's meaning, about the nature and importance of relationships, about spirituality, work, family, identity and so on. It is what makes writing fascinating and the critiquing of writing something more than an intellectual exercise. When we interpret a text, we bring our own hopes, fears, joys and beliefs to the forefront, despite our claims of intellectual objectivity, and what is at stake is not just an evaluation of the work itself, but often an evaluation of our political, social, psychological and emotional identities. What we see or read into a text can become a kind of experiment, a literary depiction of the way we see, or would like to see, and interpret ourselves and our world. Often, in the course of interpreting, we feel compelled to name and label both writer and text in order to talk about them in ways that make sense to us, and in order to pinpoint them in relation to ourselves. When we label anything, we attempt to control or own it; we assign values or a set of rules to that person or object. What is lost in that process... ... Voyage Out." Modern Fiction Studies 38.1(1992): 269. Meese, Elizabeth. "When Virginia Looked at Vita, What Did She See; or, Lesbian: Feminist: Woman - What's the differ(e/a)nce?" Feminist Studies 18.1 (1992):105. Nicolson, Nigel. Portrait of a Marriage. New York: Atheneum, 1973. Nicolson, Nigel and Joanne Trautmann, eds. The Letters of Virginia Woolf. Vol. 3. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1977. Smith, Patricia Juliana. Lesbian Panic: Homoeroticism in Modern British Women's Fiction. New York: Columbia UP, 1997. Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One's Own. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1979. --- . "A Sketch of the Past." Moments of Being. Ed. Jeanne Schulkind. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1976. --- . Mrs. Dalloway. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1925. --- . Three Guineas. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1938. --- . To the Lighthouse. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1927. Imposing Our Own Ideological Frameworks onto Virginia Woolf and Her Wr Imposing Our Own Ideological Frameworks onto Virginia Woolf and Her Writing Whenever we try to imagine the feelings or motives of a writer, we impose our own thoughts and ideas, our own biases, onto that person and their work. Perhaps in order to justify our choices or legitimate the philosophies that we hold dear, we interpret texts so that they fall into place in our own ideological frameworks. Literature, because it engages with the most important and passionate questions in life, evokes responses in readers that emanate not only from the mind but also from the subconscious and from the deepest places in the heart. Writers like Virginia Woolf ask, and sometimes answer, questions about life's meaning, about the nature and importance of relationships, about spirituality, work, family, identity and so on. It is what makes writing fascinating and the critiquing of writing something more than an intellectual exercise. When we interpret a text, we bring our own hopes, fears, joys and beliefs to the forefront, despite our claims of intellectual objectivity, and what is at stake is not just an evaluation of the work itself, but often an evaluation of our political, social, psychological and emotional identities. What we see or read into a text can become a kind of experiment, a literary depiction of the way we see, or would like to see, and interpret ourselves and our world. Often, in the course of interpreting, we feel compelled to name and label both writer and text in order to talk about them in ways that make sense to us, and in order to pinpoint them in relation to ourselves. When we label anything, we attempt to control or own it; we assign values or a set of rules to that person or object. What is lost in that process... ... Voyage Out." Modern Fiction Studies 38.1(1992): 269. Meese, Elizabeth. "When Virginia Looked at Vita, What Did She See; or, Lesbian: Feminist: Woman - What's the differ(e/a)nce?" Feminist Studies 18.1 (1992):105. Nicolson, Nigel. Portrait of a Marriage. New York: Atheneum, 1973. Nicolson, Nigel and Joanne Trautmann, eds. The Letters of Virginia Woolf. Vol. 3. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1977. Smith, Patricia Juliana. Lesbian Panic: Homoeroticism in Modern British Women's Fiction. New York: Columbia UP, 1997. Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One's Own. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1979. --- . "A Sketch of the Past." Moments of Being. Ed. Jeanne Schulkind. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1976. --- . Mrs. Dalloway. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1925. --- . Three Guineas. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1938. --- . To the Lighthouse. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1927.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
By the end of World War II, the nations of Western Europe all faced the burdens of the post-war economies. If not totally destroyed, a nation was in chaos and needed dramatic reconstruction. This is where democratic societies stepped in; recreation of sturdy government was crucial to the revival of Western European countries. Within just a few years after the defeat of Italy and Germany, the European hemisphere bounced back into a stronger, more efficient society than ever before. Some call this the Ã¢â¬Å"Golden Age of the European economy. Ã¢â¬ As human life became more and more complex and difficult to manage, the government had to accommodate to the citizenÃ¢â¬ s needs and wants. Because of the basic importance of the contemporary social structure, its management had a crucial importance in making the countries work. Europe was used to strict authority over its people and complexity in the way they handles a countries affairs was not accepted. Ã¢â¬Å"Europe was a very special situation though, because it has a long record of traditional social control imposed over the individual by collective authorities, especially the state, and hierarchal religious institutions. Another problem that was going on in modern Western EuropeÃ¢â¬ (pg. 21, Crozier) the military grew in size a great deal, West European armed forces grew from forty-two thousand to almost eighty thousand within five years after the Second World War. Especially in the country of France. With the militant group emerging larger than ever, the government was working! with more citizens first hand, by supporting the working military group. One of the main pieces to making a modern democracy work was inducing the people to want to partake in the government and have them strive to get involved with the mending of the societal crisis. All post war European countries had to live through the same costly situation of having to restore their countryÃ¢â¬ s trade, government, social harmony, be at peace with the government, and relinquish all other aspects of damages caused by the intolerances that came along with traditional thinking. In the United States, the country was working by the people, for the people, in all efforts to be a united, strong country. Automatic freedoms of speech, press, and religion, gave the people the reassurance that things were being done to assist them in everyday life. Sixty five million dollars alone went into healthcare, unemployment, social services, community programs, and better education for children, and progra! ms for the working class. Also, anyone who was educated had a chance to run for various forms of government positions, which meant the citizens could first hand, come out and take part in the government. Some positions include senators, mayors, councilmen, governors, seats in congress and House of Representatives. Where else but America could you find opportunities such as these? Divisions once created by war and intolerance led to the modern developing of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). This was a form of military unity, which was important to Western Europe after 1945. It helped heal wounds with competing countries in the trade world, and have peace between once warring countries. Many other European peace treaties were signed during the 60Ã¢â¬ ³s and 70Ã¢â¬ ³s. These primarily helped the democratic people altogether because peace smoothed over tense conditions for European citizens. These treaties include the European Coal and Steel Community and the EEC or common! market. In the 1980Ã¢â¬ ³s, a treaty on the European Union, integrated even more countries for a peaceful trade system. After signed in the small country of the Netherlands, an attempt to create a true economic and monetary union of all EC (EEC) members. One of the most interesting facts, coming into play in ever most recent times, is that a goal of the EC was to introduce an absolute worldwide common currency that could be found almost everywhere, called the Ã¢â¬Å"EuroÃ¢â¬ , dated to be out 2002. Even now in present days, the Euro dollar is heard of as an idea that some forms of government want to pursue. The fact is, democracy does not work without the people playing a crucial role in government. If your government is constantly telling you exactly how to live your life, what you must believe in, cheating you out your dollar, and totally undermining the working class, you are going to see no progress in that society. Basically, with Western Europe having the least amount of acceptance of variety and having little tolerance for true societal freedom, a great democracy cannot exist. This is why the United States has grown to be the most powerful and well off country of all times. The creators of our ever-evolving democracy here in America just goes to show, that caring about the people who make up our Ã¢â¬Å"democracyÃ¢â¬ gives them the strength and will to work together to make anything work and to truly peruse happiness. Thank God for America!
Friday, November 8, 2019
Video and Activity Domestic Workers Essays Video and Activity Domestic Workers Essay Video and Activity Domestic Workers Essay Video and Activity Domestic Workers It is through work that we find to fulfill our purpose here on earth. According to John Paul II, work is a fundamental aspect of the existence of humankind. Work is indeed an important element of transforming the earth as well as adapting the earth to suit the needs. There are many forms and nature of work, in all these forms work should be dignified, and in this way, all workers should enjoy their full rights. The role of women in domestic work should be viewed more closely with dignity as many of them have faced a lot of injustices in the past, present and could still perpetuate. The rights of workers are very imperative and must be observed at all costs. Many governments do not consider domestic workers as relevant employees, and this should not be the case. The entire labor process has to be organized to meet the needs of women and men at work. The rights of all workers should be safeguarded by their direct employers as well as indirect employers. Domestic workers in many countries face torture, oppression, sexual harassment and other forms of abuse with poor working conditions. John Paul II view work in a spiritual manner. He believes that by sharing in work human being contributes to the creation process since Jesus is happy with those who work as he was also a laborer. In conclusion, dignity is an important aspect of domestic labor and employers should work towards ensuring all their workers are treated with respect. Domestic work is not an easy task and should also be considered a form of labor that should be remunerated well with good working condition s.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Mailing Gifts to Canada Without Duties or Taxes Sending gifts to Canada by mail can incur taxes and fees, just as mailing things to people in other countries does. When you mail presents and other non-commercial presents to friends or relatives in Canada, consider the rules about duties and taxes before arriving at the shipping retailer of your choice. Exempt Gifts Gifts sent to individuals in Canada are exempt from duties and taxes if: The item is worth less than $60 CAN (Be mindful of exchange rates)The item sent is clearly a personal gift and includes a card or notice indicating that it is a gift Gifts That Are Taxed If the gift is worth more than $60 CAN, the recipient will have to pay applicable duties and sales taxes on the value of the gift over $60 CAN. Also, the $60 gift exemption does not apply to tobacco, alcoholic beverages, or advertising material, nor does it apply toÃ items sent by a business, company, or association. All of these packages would incur fees upon delivery. Getting Around Gift Taxes Taxes and fees cant simply be avoided by giving the gift to the recipient in person, though the recipient can use a personal exemption for gifts if they transport them. Also, the $60 gift exemption cannot be combined with the regular $20 mail exemption available for all items.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
If and when I raise children, I'll never - Assignment Example I shall also try not to have arguments with my partner when my child is around so that s/he always feels secure. I shall never try to compare my child with any other child. Instead I shall encourage my child to work harder and also try new things so s/he may find where his/her aptitude lies. I will try to set up a solid support system at home that will reassure my little one that no matter what, we will always be there for him/her and our love will always be as strong. My childÃ¢â¬â¢s health will be a major concern and I shall always strive to keep the child away from passive smoking Ã¢â¬â meaning a strict no smoking at home, and reduce to the minimum unhealthy eating. Stressing the importance of a healthy mind in a healthy body will be an important part of my efforts to raise my child. I shall encourage the child to play outdoor games and maintain hygienic habits. I would like my child to develop the ability to keep an open mind and not rush to conclusions without due thought and consideration. I shall therefore encourage reading habits and logical thinking. I think a parentÃ¢â¬â¢s listening skills are very important to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s overall development. I shall never brush aside the childÃ¢â¬â¢s fears or doubts. I shall set time aside for my child in order to give him/her the confidence to be able to confide problems or worries thus helping avoid major disturbances. I sincerely hope that when I do become a parent, I shall be a good one and bring up a physically and emotionally well-balanced human
Friday, November 1, 2019
SAME SEX MARRIGE - Research Paper Example f same-sex marriage, and whereas there are people who say they should be legalized and rely upon the equal rights for everyone, including gay persons, there are also those who find a lot of arguments against the legalization of homosexual marriages. Mostly those opposing the same-sex marriages claim that the gay people are normally not in the habit to be faithful to each other. However this can hardly serve as a reasonable and sound argument as not all hererosexuals are faithful and devoted husbands and wives. Taking into account that there are multiple benefits (social and emotional) for people who get married, it becomes clear that it would be unfair to deprive gays and lesbians of their right to get married only on the ground of their sexual orientation. In fact, in many countries of the world and some states of America homosexual marriages have already been legalized. So it seems that soon the gay people all over the world will get the right to get married to their partners. There are still, of course, some burning issues that are being argued about and discussed, such as adopting and bringing up children in homosexual families, however even these are being solved now in many world countries basing upon the presupposition of equal rights and equal opportunities for every human being. How can marriage be defined? Marriage is the unity of two people who live together, and this unity should be acknowledged by the society. Such factors as having children, loving each other, and even official recognition (for in some places, it is still possible to marry without registration) are not necessary. It is normally taken for granted by the majority of people that marriages are concluded between two people of different sex; however in the course of history there have been plenty of examples of unities of people of the same gender, and these unities had all features of an Ã¢â¬Å"ordinaryÃ¢â¬ marriage (Sparta, Ancient Greece, Rome, Ancient China and Japan). If we talk about