Saturday, December 28, 2019

Starbucks Final Case Study - 4310 Words

CASE STUDY: STARBUCKS CORPORATION (SBUX) Frank Mabson BUS 411: Strategic Planning Professor Oma Lopes Midway College - Online Historical Background The name Starbucks came from a character that was chief mate aboard the Pequod in the novel Moby Dick by Herman Melville (Rolph, 2012). Originally, the name for the company was Pequod until one of the original co-owners vetoed it and agreed on the name Starbucks instead. Now, we associate the name Starbucks with the company logo, which features a two-tailed Greek mythology figure called siren. The Starbucks Corporation (SBUX) is an American, multinational coffee chain formed in 1985. The idea was sculpted and brought into reality by writer Gordon Bowker, history†¦show more content†¦These are just some of what gives Starbucks the competitive advantage. By staying ahead of the competition, Starbucks is not only able to set industry trends but also satisfy its customers, employees and shareholders. The basis of the competitive advantage Starbucks has on the coffee shop industry stems from its ability to market its brand and live up to its mission statement. In addition, Starbucks doesn’t rely solely on its products for obtaining and sustaining the upper hand. According to, when customers enter a Starbucks establishment they are taking on an entire process and experience (Krikorian, 2014). By choosing Starbucks, customers can customize their drinks to perfection by selecting one of its 30 different options of premier coffee blends. Following the order process, customers can enjoy the great atmosphere by listening to music or perhaps enjoy taking part in friendly conversations with pleasant workers and patrons. Simply put, Starbucks thrives on a connected customer experience that differentiates them from the rest of the industry. Also, retail storefronts. In the U.S., Starbucks kindly takes advantages of the fact Americans tend to have morning ri tuals. As a result, they have the opportunity not only to serve loyal customers, but also essentially to become part of their lives (Krikorian, 2014). Organizational Structure Assessment Starbucks gained a ton ofShow MoreRelatedStarbucks Final Case Study Essay3803 Words   |  16 PagesFinal Case Study and Strategic Plan: Starbucks’ Global Quest BUS 402 Strategic Management Business Policy Executive Summary Here at Starbucks, we have had a very rewarding year thus far, and have been very successful since the beginning of our journey. As a matter of fact when you mention the name, Starbucks, people quickly think about that wonderful aroma and taste that is associated with the Starbucks’ name. This is truly what we are trying to create, a partnershipRead MoreAshford Mgt 330 Entire Course (Management for Organizations)1371 Words   |  6 PagesWeek 1 DQ 2 Company Evaluation MGT 330 Week 2 Case Study Starbucks’ Structure MGT 330 Week 2 DQ1 Structure for Conglomerates MGT 330 Week 2 DQ2 Classifying Structure MGT 330 Week 3 DQ 1 Legal Aspects of Staffing MGT 330 Week 3 DQ 2 Bias in Performance Appraisal MGT 330 Week 4 DQ 1 Theories of Motivation MGT 330 Week 4 DQ 2 Productivity Management MGT 330 Week 5 DQ 1 Steps of Control MGT 330 Week 5 DQ 2 Changes in Management MGT 330 Week 5 Final Paper MGT 330 Week 1 DQ 1 Surf Shop Comparison Read MoreStarbucks Case Study Essay1591 Words   |  7 Pagescoffee, intimate service, and ambient atmosphere. Starbucks worked closely with growers in Africa, South and Central America, and Asia-Pacific regions to insure the quality of its product. Starbucks called all employees partners and worked hard to train them with the skills necessary to best serve the customer. The atmosphere at Starbucks was crafted after the European-style espresso bar. The company goal was to create ambience through the Starbucks experience and by making the area comfortableRead MoreStarbucks Corporation ( Loxcel Starbucks Map, 2016 Essay1207 Words   |  5 Pages STARBUCKS SATISH SARAVANAN VEERAVELU Northwest University: International Business BUSM 6123 11/1/2016 Professor Larry Walker â€Æ' Starbucks Corporation (Loxcel Starbucks Map, 2016) is an American coffee company and coffeehouse chain founded in Seattle, Washington in 1971. It operates 23,768 locations worldwide, including 13,107 in the United States, 2,204 in China, 1,418 in Canada, 1,160 in Japan and 872 in South Korea (as of Jan 8, 2016). Starbucks (Peet s rides coffee s third wave Read MoreThe Market Entry of Starbucks into China898 Words   |  4 PagesThe final project is going to be about the market entry of Starbucks into China. This project will focus on gauging the success of the companys market entry strategy thus far. Starbucks has announced in a press release that it believes China will be its #2 market by 2014, and the company has been one of the most successful American companies in that market (Starbucks, 2012). The company entered the Chinese market in 1999 with a store in Beijing. This followed the acquisition of greater knowledgeRead MoreStarbucks, An American Coffee Company1439 Words   |  6 PagesStarbucks, an American coffee company which was established in the year 1971. At that time it has only one store in Seattle’s Historic Pike Place Market, Washington. It covered a long journey from that single store to hundreds and thousands of stores in different countries. It has 9 stores in Seat tle till 1987. The professional management and strategies used by Howard Schultz made the company globally successful. The result of his efforts lead to the expansion of stores from 400 in US to 4700 inRead MoreMGT330 Case Study Starbucks Structure w1237 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿ Case Study: Starbucks’ Structure Cynthia Duff MGT330: Management for Organizations Instructor: James Worsley October 13, 2014 Case Study: Starbucks’ Structure Starbucks Coffee, we all know the name and most love the coffee and atmosphere it brings to our daily lives. Starbucks started out like most organizations a small coffee shop in 1971 in Seattle’s historic Pike Place Market and grew. This small shop started out as a single owner who the employees answered to which is known as departmentalizationRead MoreMarketing Analysis of Starbucks1182 Words   |  5 Pagesessential to the success of any company. A company may have an ideal product, but without proper positioning, identification of a target market, and a proper marketing plan a company would not be able to successfully market its products to consumers. Starbucks has been successfully able to convert an activity carried out at home to a commercial success through proper implementation and execution of its strategic intent. The firm has been able to convince consumers that its stores provide more than justRead MoreStarbucks : Just Who Is The Starbucks Customer1085 Words   |  5 PagesStarbucks’: Just Who Is The Starbucks’ Customer? Case Study Introduction: Starbucks started out in Seattle by three friends who were passionate coffee lovers. The small coffee shop became an instant hit with the locals. It sold the finest coffee and satisfied the thirsty community and by 1980, after less than a decade since its inception, it had become Washington’s biggest coffee master. The unusual coffee shop caught the attention of an Italian; Howard Schultz, who saw a lot of potential in itRead MoreUndertaking An Observation. Over The Years, I Felt That981 Words   |  4 PagesUndertaking an Observation Over the years, I felt that the Starbucks in Allentown seems like a meeting a place for all ages. Why is that though? Before I began this assignment, my hypothesis was that people stay longer in Starbucks because the layout increases customer interactions. On Saturday, February 11, 2017 between 9:00 AM and 9:45 AM, I completed my observation at the Starbucks Cafà © in Allentown, Pennsylvania. The Starbucks coffee shop is located on Tilghman Street in Allentown, PA is

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Autobiography Of Malcolm X Is A National Bestseller

The Autobiography of Malcolm X is a national bestseller pinpointing Malcolm X’s involvement in the Civil Rights Movement and the Nation of Islam. Malcolm X expresses the journey he took to become the momentous leader he is known as today, and tells the personal reasoning behind his movement. Alex Haley assisted Malcolm X in his writing, and together they produced a masterpiece. This book appeals to those interested in social justice and reform, as well as religion and spiritual enlightenment. The autobiography was written in hopes of accurately illustrating Malcolm X’s experiences. Detailing the motives and reasoning behind Malcolm’s life, the book offers a better understanding of the racial circumstances of the era. Though Malcolm X’s†¦show more content†¦All of Haley’s works serve to commemorate the treacherous struggle that blacks experienced throughout American history. Malcolm Little was born in Omaha, Nebraska, on May 19, 1925, into a family of eight children. His father, Earl Little, was a baptist minister whose outspoken push for civil rights made him a target to constant death threats. When Malcolm was only four years old, the family’s home was burned down. Two years later, as the threats grew more severe, Earl Little’s dead body was found in the street. The police ruled both cases as accidents, but Malcolm concluded that they were related to the Black Legion, a terrorist group of white supremacists. Earl’s death took a huge toll the Little family. With no steady source of income, they relied on welfare. Malcolm’s mother was taken over with devastation, so much so that she was eventually admitted into a mental institution, sending all eight Little kids to foster homes with conditions hardly better than before. At a much too early age, Malcolm understood his role as a negro living in the early eighteenth century. Malcolm was an intelligent kid who constantly focused on his education. When asked what he wanted to do in the future, he told his teacher he wanted to be a lawyer. His teacher responded with pitiful laughter, telling him that his goal was unreasonable, for black people simply weren’t good enough to be lawyers. Malcolm recalled the sheer change in heart he experienced that day. He acceptsShow MoreRelatedAutobiography of Malcolm X Synopsis1424 Words   |  6 PagesA Malcolm X Reaction Paper: From George Washington to Rosa Parks, JFK, and countless others, the world has been blessed and challenged by various leaders. In the national bestseller, â€Å"The Autobiography of Malcolm X, as told to Alex Haley† we have the experience of being introduced into the life of a leader of such category; Mr. Malcolm X, Malcolm Little, Detroit Red, or rather El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz. Throughout his autobiography, Malcolm went through several stages of his life that ultimatelyRead MoreSAT Top 30 Essay Evidence18536 Words   |  75 Pagesâ€Å"Bernie† Madoff (The greatest con artist in history) .................................................................. 43 Henry Ford (Kind-hearted industrialist and automobile innovator) ......................................................... 45 Malcolm X (Militant, radical black civil rights leader) ............................................................................ 47 Medicine: Florence Nightingale (The First Nurse) ....................................................................

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Leadership in Business and Relationship

Question: Discuss about the Leadership in Business and Relationship. Answer: Relationship between leadership and communication: Effective leadership always requires efficient communication for upholding enhanced work culture in the business. Each group of the organization including employee, managers, customers, stakeholders needs to uphold a transparent communication system at the workplace for identifying key development area in the business. Henderson (2015) has discussed that effective communication skills play an important role in any leaders portfolio, skills or experiences. Leaders may include the verbal or non-verbal communication at the workplace for implementing a particular strategy in the business. Effective leaders consider the verbal communication as the most obvious form of the communication, whereas non-verbal communication allows leaders to implement several decisions in the business. Adopting style plays an important role for the leaders. Most of the time, good leaders adapt the communication style depending on the characteristics and need of the audiences. On the other hand, Portoghese et al. (2012) have discussed that the leaders primly focus on two different communication styles including friendliness and dominance. The participative leaders always follow the friendliness communication with their employees, as it facilitates to uphold a healthy business in an efficient manner. On the contrary, the autocratic leadership focuses on the dominance communication, as it contributes them to achieve goals and objectives of the business. Leadership communication style also depends on the organization culture. With the involvement of the leaders communication, an organization can enhance their business opportunity in the global platforms. Henderson (2015) has argued that communication can be related to charismatic and human-oriented leadership than to task-oriented lead ership. Relationship between leadership and training: Leadership and training are two major components of the business that facilitates to uphold a healthy work environment at the workplace. With the involvement of the leadership development and training activities, the management can enhance the work efficiency in an efficient manner. The concept of leadership depends on the different learning activities that facilitate in enhancing knowledge and working proficiency. Ofner (2016) has discussed that the training is an integral part of the leadership development, which facilitates the organization to experience the profitable outcome in the business. Leadership training includes several aspects of the business including communications, software skills, customer service, diversity, ethics, and human relationship and quality initiatives. Hasson et al. (2016) have argued that enhanced training and development facilitate the leaders to uphold the business morale at the workplace. Most of the business analysts have discussed that the training and development program are the primary requirements for enhancing the leadership qualities in an efficient manner. However, the training module depends on different leadership styles including autocratic leadership, participative leadership, and transformation leadership (Ofner 2016). Through the involvement of the enhanced learning activity, effective leaders could enhance their performing skills in an effective manner (Hasson et al. 2016). On the other hand, the learning module facilitates the leaders to develop individual skills expanding the capacity of upholding a proper business process ma nagement. It is one of the major components for obtaining the individual learner characteristics. Moreover, it provides genuine supports to make a behavioral change from the leaders supervisors. References Hasson, H., von Thiele Schwarz, U., Holmstrom, S., Karanika-Murray, M. Tafvelin, S. 2016, "Improving organizational learning through leadership training",Journal of Workplace Learning,vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 115-129. Henderson, A. 2015, "Leadership and communication: what are the imperatives?",Journal of Nursing Management,vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 693-694. fner, D. 2016, "Leadership and training",European Surgery,vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 163-165. Portoghese, I., Galletta, M., Battistelli, A., Saiani, L., Penna, M.P. Allegrini, E. 2012, "Changeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ related expectations and commitment to change of nurses: the role of leadership and communication",Journal of Nursing Management,vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 582-591.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

A Sea Change by Ernest Hemingway Essay Example For Students

A Sea Change by Ernest Hemingway Essay This forty line extract of the short story Sea Change, by Ernest Hemingway, was first published in the magazine This Quarter in 1931. The story is based on a conversation overheard in the Basque Bar in Saint-Jean-de Luz, France, and also on a three-hour conversation with Gertrude Stein, about lesbians. This short story is also connected with the story Hills Like White Elephants, and is thus associated to the lost generation; in other words, young people that have come back from the war, and dont see any meaning in life anymore, and thus they follow the same circular activities. The story has also a special significance, because of the theme of homosexuality. Hemingway in fact had the suspicion that both his mother and first wife were involved in homosexual activities. The story, as in Hills Like White Elephants, present a man and a woman having a delicate argument. In this story, the men and women from Hills Like White Elephants switch places; thus it is the woman now that is trying to convince the man by being nice to him and manipulative. Thus we can see how these two stories are very similar in the context. The girl in this story appears to be very manipulative much like the man from Hills Like White Elephants, because she is trying to make her homosexual affair sound reasonable and rational; while she is pretending to still have feelings for the man, and that she loves him. She us in fact trying to get his approval of the lesbian affair, and wants to make sure that he will accept her back after her fling is over. Thus we can infer how she wants to have this affair one way or another, even though Phil agrees to it or not. So, she appears to be manipulating Phil, by presenting the affair as something utterly unavoidable, as if it was destiny for her to have that affair. She insists on this, asking Phil to be good to and let go, she even tries to make him think that she can be forgiven since she told him about it; you cant forgive me? When you know about it? She is so manipulative, that she wants to compare the things that Phil and her have done with a lesbian affair, you dont think things weve had and done should make any difference in understanding? Thus she is hinting that Phil and her have done many things, that are not very dissimilar to a lesbian affair; this hints to the fact that they both might have had other affairs besides their relationship, but they are ignoring it. This brings out the lost generation; having sex randomly just for pleasure, seeing no meaning in life. She furthers this image later on, when she mentions that wer made up of all sorts of things. Youve known that. Youve used it well enough. So, she is trying to make him feel guilty; as if he was willing to indulge himself in his own pleasures (other affairs) whenever he wanted, in the past, but he wont let her indulge in her pleasures. Thus, she is manipulating Phil, trying to get him to understand her, and let her go, and then accept her back. Phil however, who is willing to change this irresponsible life that they both had, does not want to agree to her lesbian affair. Through out the whole extract, the girl keeps trying to get Phils approval, manipulating him and his ideas. The man, Phil, at the beginning makes the reader feel sorry for him, as we might feel sorry for Jig, in Hills Like White Elephants. However, we understand that he only wants this own way, and he is jealous, since the lesbian affair threatens his image, and thus he is not willing to agree, and let her go. Thus, as we enter this extract, we lose sympathy for him, because in the past he has pretty much had it his own way, for a long time. Here, we infer that he has probably been leading the relationship in the past, just as the man in Hills Like White Elephants, and the girl was submitted to his will. .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c , .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c .postImageUrl , .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c , .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c:hover , .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c:visited , .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c:active { border:0!important; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c:active , .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u8663612b52ce3825ff86600a073d267c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Racism In Othello Relating To Racial Hatred In Elizabethan England EssayAlso, when the girl refers to things weve had and done in the past, we get the idea that the man had had his own way for a long time, possibly having other pleasures except her. He has in fact used the phrase Wer made up of all sorts of things in the past, when it was convenient for him. Thus we see that the man only wants his own way, and he would not let the girl have her own way; these past quotes hint how in the past it has always been like this, and the man wants it to stay this way. He is also jealous of the fact that she is going to sleep with another woman, even though he has done so himself ma ny times. We can see his jealousy when he expresses her homosexual affair as a vice2 and a perversion. He thus quotes a famous quote by Alexander Pope: Vice is a monster of such fearful mien that to be something or other needs but to be seen. Then we something something, embrace. Here, apart from his jealousy, we can see how the men has poor culture and education, since he cant remember the complete phrase: Vice is a monster of such frightful mien, /As to be hated needs but to be seen;/Yet seen too oft, familiar with her face,/We first endure, then pity, then embrace. Apart from his jealousy, and selfishness, we see that this last phrase by Alexandar Pope, may hint to the mans relationship with the girl, and how disastrous it is, based on vices, that they both share, and nothing else. So, the men appears to be sharing similar vices as the girl, even more probably; however, he doesnt want the girl to have her own pleasure, thus he is shown as selfish and jealous.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

All Over The World, Disparities Between The Rich And Poor, Even In The

All over the world, disparities between the rich and poor, even in the wealthiest of nations is rising sharply. Fewer people are becoming increasingly "successful" and wealthy while a disproportionately larger population is also becoming even poorer. There are many issues involved when looking at poverty. It is not simply enough (or correct) to say that the poor are poor due to their own (or their government's) bad governance and management. In fact, you could quite easily conclude that the poor are poor because the rich are rich and have the power to enforce trade agreements, which favor their interests more than the proper nations. This is a very serious problem in our society today. Poverty is everywhere and it needs to reduced so that our economy will be more stabilized and balanced that it has been. What does it mean to be poor? What does it mean to describe a nation as "developing"? A lack of material wealth does not define one as deprived. A strong economy in a developed nation does not mean much when a significant percentage or a majority of the population is struggling to survive. Development usually implies an improvement in living standards such that a person has enough food, water, and clothing, a stable social environment, freedom, and basic rights to have a fair chance for a decent life. Is this actually progress? On the other hand, are we fooled into believing that it is? The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services placed the poverty level for a family of four at $16,450 in 1998, and the poverty rate in 1996, according to the HHS, was 13.7 percent, or 36.5 million Americans. (Egendorf: 1999, 12). Is there really a way to measure poverty, and to decide exactly what poverty is? Hunger, income level, housing and the economy's condition of the working poor are just a few example of what needs to be considered when measuring the poverty levels in our nation. Poverty expands and contracts and its definition changes in accordance with temporary exigencies, including the interests of those who propound the definitions do the counting, which means that there is no concrete definition of poverty, except for the numbers. (Valentine: 1968, 13). Poverty is not something that has just recently become an issue; it has been around for many years. The economy has been a major influence on the levels of poverty in our nation. In 1973, poverty increased because then the economy worsened. Real wages and productivity decreased, and the economy could not grow fast enough to absorb the large number of potential workers, which caused unemployment to increase (Katz: 1989, 154). Ever since then our government has tried to reduce the poverty in our nation, and so far has had a hard time. In 1996, Bill Clinton addressed the welfare bill, and that resulted in an estimated one million children being thrown into poverty (Egendorf: 1999, 19). However, assistance from the Government has also been helpful. Programs such as Social Security, Food stamps, housing assistance are safety nets that has helped lower the high risk of poverty. Without these added benefits, people would be a lot worse than they are now. The safety net programs reduced the child poverty rate from 24% before the benefits were counted down to 16% (Egendorf: 1999, 19). Supplemental Security income, local general assistance, and earned income tax credits have also been popular components of income in the United States (Lynn, McGeary: 1990, 235). Education levels are not as high in urban areas, which means that the people who are living in these areas are not qualified for the high paying jobs. High skilled jobs are beyond the reach of those who live in areas of concentrated poverty, and those who are going for the high skilled jobs, are finding their way out of these areas of concentrated poverty. Higher standard of living also attracts immigrants, which makes it hard for people living in urban areas to find good paying jobs, because the immigrants will work for lower wages. What about the myth that America is the land of opportunity? With such a high standard of living, many believe this is not true (Shein: 1998, 13). Those who work hard and have

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Albert Camus essays

Albert Camus essays The Stranger represents in many ways, Camus style of Existentialism and his philosophical notion of absurdity. The absurd by Camus definition is what describes humanitys attempts to place rationalization or reasoning to important aspects of the human condition such as the need for government, religion, and a realization of the physical or natural world. All of this is absurd because Camus idea of Existentialism states that there is absolutely no inherent meaning given to any of these fundamentals whereas humanity is found to have the need to place them in a certain order or rationalize the existence of such. Meursault is the character in Camus novel, The Stranger who deals with the world in a way that seems confusing at first, but whose personality becomes clearer as we progress deeper into the realm of Existentialism and Camus notion of absurdity. What is it exactly about Meursaults character that which prevents him from finding meaning given to his life by religion, nature, or government? We see in the novel that Meursault has a different way of looking not only at the world around him, but also how he sees himself in his own mind. This unique view is the key to this novel and the beliefs that Camus is trying to convey. It is apparent from the very beginning of the novel in Part One, that there are small yet significant perceptive differences in the way that Meursault interacts with his environment. He sees the world around him without any kind of rationale or reasoning within it, and his thoughts and emotions reflect this trait as well. Therefore, the news of the death of his mother does not affect him as it would someone who possesses an ability to reason or find meaning in life or death. In the beginning of the second chapter of The Stranger, Meursault first encounters Marie, who is an old co-worker and here, Camu s allows us to see an example of the character&apo...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Principles of learning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Principles of learning - Essay Example Before one successfully complete the course, he is given practical teaching lesson where he is supervised as he teaches a class at least four times. At the end of each practical teaching assessment is done, the student teacher is given feedback and areas that he needs to be improved are highlighted. One is allowed to go ahead and complete stage 3 at the institute of education after completing the stage 2. While studying stage 2 however, assessment is continuously done throughout the course to ensure that the students' performance is monitored. While studying principles of education, a teacher is able to understand his students and for this case, he is able to teach them in the best way possible to enhance their understanding. The teacher is also able to understand his students' abilities, potential and learning need for the sake of achieving their objectives of transferring knowledge to them. At the end of the course, the teacher should be in a position to apply various methods and techniques for learning, teaching, assessment and evaluation. For this case, the teacher will be in a better position to use his/her skill in his teaching profession for the sake of achieving the already laid down teaching objectives. ... s case, he is able to ensure that all the content that is required to be cover in a particular period of time is covered and the learning objectives are achieved at the end of a term or a course. The teacher is also able to apply his own innovative ways of teaching by use of information technology in order to facilitate him to achieve his teaching goals and objectives. He is able to brainstorm against various teaching methods that can be used in class in order to achieve his objective. These can be done by collecting various teaching techniques that he can use for teaching and this in turn help him to land on the best technique to use in the class. This ensures that his teaching objectives are achieved at the end of the course. After a teacher undergoes the stage 2 principle of learning, he is able to know his potential for the sake of developing it and eventually be able to achieve his teaching objectives. He reflects on his own experience and this enable him/her to be able to achieve his teaching objectives. Still at the end of the course, the teacher develops his own interpersonal and communication skills. This is achieved as a result of the teaching practical sessions that are compulsory for them to undergo before they complete the course. Due to this, the teachers are in a position of handling their duties in professional way with a lot of confidence. 2 During the course, the teacher are made aware of their professional roles as teachers and this enable them to handle students in the recommended ways according to the laid down rules and regulations. The teachers are taught on how to handle students so that they achieve their teaching objectives. They are taught on how they are able to prepare for their lessons in a professional ways so that when they are in

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Accounting Case Study Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Accounting Case Study - Essay Example In order to increase profitability of the business, the company should reduce the cost of salaries and wages (Maher, Stickney, & Weil 139). Also, miscellaneous expenses are too high and thus the manager should establish the cause of such an extreme cost. Furthermore, the CEO can control development cost of producing books by apportioning production cost to the number of books at various stages (Maher, Stickney, & Weil 142). They should differentiate between direct and indirect cost. All the direct costs associated with each unit produced should be added directly at each production stage while the indirect cost incurred at each stage of production in each department should be distributed to respective department (Maher, Stickney, & Weil 158). Apportioning the production cost at different stages will enable the CCP Publishers to establish the actual cost of finished products instead. The estimated profitability of books at the time of signing contract is an estimate of finished goods w hile actual cost may be inclusive of work in progress and unsold stock. The company should determine the factors responsible for high cost and establish measures to reduce the cost. For example, the salaries and wages may have increased due to contracting out of most its activities. The management can decrease the value by offering such services internally instead of contracting out (Maher, Stickney, & Weil

Sunday, November 17, 2019

2. Why, when and by whom was the NAACP founded Assess its Essay

2. Why, when and by whom was the NAACP founded Assess its effectiveness - Essay Example The founders included WEB Dubois (African American), William English Walling (Caucasian) and Ida Wells-Barnett (German-born Caucasian). Other White liberals who participated in the formation include Mary White and Henry Moscowitz. Early members of NAACP include Jane Addams, Mary Talbert, Charles Russell, George White and Ray Baker. Following the Niagara Movement (1905) objectives, NAACP clearly stated that it was focused on ensuring civil rights of all people that were provided by 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments of the Constitution that provided equal legal rights and abolishment of slavery2. In 1915, NAACP petitioned showing of the birth of a nation film. In 1919, NAACP organized a symposium and published the â€Å"thirty years of lynching in the United States 1899-1918†. NAACP supported the Anti-lynching bill that was destined to ending instances of lynching in America but the Senate rejected the bill. Another notable contribution was involvement in Harlem Renaissance where Black Americans wanted more rights to engage in artistic and intellectual activities in the society. Through the tireless efforts of NAACP, many Blacks became respected authors, dancers, singers and artists in 1920s and 1930s. NAACP also helped the minority households who faced harsh economic situation during the Great Depression by advocating for the reduction in taxes. The organization campaigned for the end of racial discrimination in the armed forces and other State defense industries. President Roosevelt finally accepted to allow minorities to participate in thousands of State jobs after NAACP threatened to organize public marches in 1941. The struggle for equality in employment led to the establishment of Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) that was supposed to ensure fairness in employment matters3. NAACP participated in ending racial segregation. Thurgood Marshall, the head of educational and legal defense fund,

Friday, November 15, 2019

Elderly Patient on Psychotic Depression ward

Elderly Patient on Psychotic Depression ward In this assignment I will be carrying out a Critical Incident Analysis on an incident taken from my portfolio that was encountered whilst in practice placement. This type of analysis was first used to analyse flying missions by pilots, as a way of raising their performance (Flanagan, 1954), in more recent years Norman et al. (1992) and Perry (1997) described this type of analysis as being an important and valid tool for use in nurse training, as it allows the student to choose and use an incident that made an impact on them, from their practice placement that was either positive or negative, so that they can analyse, reflect on and learn from it, showing their development as a practitioner and a person whilst linking theory to practice and helping them move from novice to expert, as outlined by Benner (1984) . Model used for reflection For the purpose of this assignment I have selected the Gibbs (1988) reflective framework model which is an iterative model meaning it is cyclical in nature, the six points covered by this model are: Describe the activity or experience in objective detail. Discuss and explore any feelings you were having at the time of the experience. Evaluate the experience: What really happened? What was good about it? What was bad? What factors contributed to the event? Analyse the experience: What can you learn from it? Conclusion: What could you have done differently? Anything you wish you had done? Wish you hadnt done? Action Plan: What can you plan on doing in the future? (Bethann, 2004, p167) This is also the model I use in my portfolio as along with critical incident analysis, it centres on reflective practice, an essential skill in nursing practice allowing situations to be analysed in detail, identifying areas of potential change, Jasper (2003) and reinforcing the need for certain practices by highlighting their benefits. I also find the logical, straightforward structure of this framework allows the reflection to be written clearly, providing opportunities to look at incidents from different perspectives. The Critical Incident Stages one and two of Gibbs model of reflection are covered here, where the incident is described along with my feelings at the time of the incident. I chose this particular incident as it put me in a very challenging position where I had to think on my feet, it made me test my abilities as a communicator and a nurse under stress, whilst highlighting the importance of some of the more basic nursing techniques like non-verbal communication through touch, educating patients to help themselves, looking out for physical signs that can indicate a patient is in distress and how working closely with a patient can earn their trust whilst building up the therapeutic relationship In order to keep the patient and the practice placement confidential, as indicated in the NMC Code of Professional Conduct (2002) and the N.M.C. guide for students (2002), the practice placement is kept anonymous and the patient will be referred to as Tom. The patients consent was also obtained, as it is the patients right to choose whether or not they wish details to be written about them, highlighted by Johnston and Slowther (2003) also outlined in section 3.7 of the N.M.C Code of conduct (2002) with reference to patients who suffer from mental illness. The patient, Tom a 72 year old man, was admitted to my practice placement suffering from Psychotic depression and anxiety, my placement is at a Psychiatric admissions ward, for patients over sixty five years old. On assisting Tom with his activities of daily living (A.D.Ls), (Roper et al, 1980) after, rising one Monday morning, It became apparent when helping Tom dress that his right arm was causing him pain, in the area of his right shoulder, I relayed this to the nursing staff who explained Tom had fallen unobserved on the Friday night and had been seen by the Doctor who on examination felt no other investigations were needed. On further discussion about his arm and the fall, between myself and Tom, he eventually admitted to having also fallen on the Sunday night and had not told anyone about it, once I had explained this to the nursing staff the Doctor was again consulted and felt that Tom should have an X-ray to rule out any broken bones. I accompanied Tom as an escort to the x-ray department where he became increasingly agitated, anxious and was mumbling to himself with delusional content of speech evident, concerning the N.H.S. which had not been known about, as Tom had only recently been admitted, he felt they (the N.H.S) were going to cause him, bodily injury (a persecutory delusion Gamble Brennan, 2003) due to his doing them out of money when he was younger, I did my best to give constant reassurance that I would not let anyone harm him, but when someone holds a delusional belief it can be very firmly maintained and difficult to dissuade from, in particular when they are in a state of high anxiety like Tom, as indicated in Stuart and Laraia (2001). I was quite worried about how the situation was going and that I might be out of my depth as I did not know Tom very well and felt a little awkward trying to reassure someone who was this distressed, feeling I was doing little or no good for him. After he had his x-ray and I was assisting him to get dressed in the x-ray cubicle the Radiologist came in and told us that Toms shoulder was broken and that we would need to go round to casualty to be seen by a Doctor there. This news made Toms level of panic escalate considerably and he began to have a panic attack in the cubicle, most likely a situationally predisposed panic attack, which occurs on exposure to a situational cue or trigger (DSM-4) Tom had become quite pale and began to perspire profusely, along with his breathing becoming very shallow and rapid to the point that he was panting, I found it quite distressing to see Tom in this condition. I had never encountered someone quite as panicked as this and I felt quite concerned. I thought calling out for someone to help might only panic him more, so I decided to try some deep breathing exercises to relax and calm him down first, then if that did not work I would seek help. I knew from reading Toms notes that he did not have a heart condition or other health problem that would have been causing these symptoms and it had been recorded that Tom suffered from panic attacks, although I was still watchful for any change in his symptoms that might indicate an alternative medical reason for his condition. Initially I sat beside Tom with my arm around him, asking him to take slow deep breaths, but with his level of panic and no eye contact meant he was not concentrating on me, so I knelt down on the floor in front of him took his hands, spoke to him gently but firmly using his name and with direct eye contact got him to focus on what we were doing. I explained his symptoms were due to his panic attack and the breathing exercises we were doing would help relax him, calm him down and make him feel better. Tom started to comply and began with my instruction, breathing in slowly through his nose holding it for a moment then breathing out slowly through his mouth. In a relatively short time his breathing began returning to normal and he started to relax, enabling us to go on to the casualty department to see about his shoulder. In the casualty department Tom still required reassurance not only verbally but also with touch as he asked me to hold his hand, bringing home the importance of this simple yet significant form of non-verbal communication and despite needing another brief set of relaxation breathing in the casualty cubicle Tom was notably calmer. I felt privileged that he had put his trust in me and that we had moved on further in our therapeutic relationship, as while waiting in casualty Tom who had hardly spoken to anyone let alone myself, began discussing how scared he had been and talked about some of his delusional beliefs, which helped me empathise with how terrified he must have been. I was also able to discuss what Tom told me with the qualified nurses on return to the ward giving a deeper insight into his condition. Critical Discussion of the Incident For this section of the Critical Incident Analysis stages three and four of Gibbs reflective framework are covered, allowing me to look at what was good and bad about the incident along with contributing factors (Gibbs 1988), I am going to discuss, analyze and reflect upon three key issues: Panic attacks, the relaxation technique of Deep breathing and Touch therapy, that were encountered during the incident and that I felt were of significant importance. Panic attacks I felt this topic was important to the critical incident as it is a common condition closely linked to anxiety which a great number of mental health patients experience often along with their main diagnosis but most commonly alongside depression as in Toms case, Clayton (1990) and Merikangas et al (1996) stated that comorbidity between panic and depression is the single strongest type of anxiety-mood comorbidity found in both treatment and in the general public. Panic attacks are often talked about and appear in patient notes but this critical incident brought home for me how absolutely terrifying and totally debilitating the panic attack was for Tom and how distressing it can be to witness a patient in this condition. Anxiety is a normal healthy reaction to the stresses of everyday life as suggested by Trevor Powel (2001) and even necessary for us to perform at our best as Yerkes-Dodsons Law (1908) explains, illustrated in the graph below. Here levels of anxiety are referred to as arousal and a direct correlation to performance is demonstrated, it tells us that if we have low levels of arousal then our performance becomes decreased (distress, as introduced by Seyle (1956)), at medium levels our performance levels peak (eustress as described by Seyle (1956)) and when our arousal levels become high our performance levels and subsequent ability to function drop again (resulting in distress) as seen in Toms situation. (Yerkes Dodson 1908) Peplau (1963) defined anxiety in four levels: Mild anxiety- everyday life stress. Moderate anxiety- Immediate concerns focused on, with narrowed perceptual field, although able to function when necessary. Severe anxiety- Greatly reduced perceptual with difficulty focusing on anything except what is causing anxiety. Panic- Person feels terror, dread as is unable to reason with the threat causing anxiety blown out of all proportion, making it almost impossible to communicate or function, with little or no control over themselves causing panic attack. Toms anxiety level was clearly at the panic stage which cannot be allowed to continue indefinitely as being in a panic attack state is not compatible with living, as described by Stuart and Laraia (2001), who believe if prolonged can result in total exhaustion or in extreme cases even death. Panic attacks affect between 3 and 5 percent of the population at some point in their lives (Lynch E, 2005). The findings of an American study carried out this year showed that people suffering from panic attacks account for around 25% of those attending casualty departments or G.Ps. (Ham, P. et al, 2005) often having trouble breathing properly as found with Tom, with most people suffering from panic attacks, stating hyperventilation as being one of their main symptoms (Holt and Andrews, 1989), or with patients believing they are having a heart attack. Toms panic attack was mainly evident by the physical symptoms he displayed, described previously, physiological symptoms often being the only visible signs of a panic attack as described by Stuart and Laraia (2001). In this instance, although Toms Psychotic Depression was the likely reason for his anxiety with the resulting panic attack, I felt trying to deescalate his anxiety levels, by getting the panic attack and hyperventilation under control was my main priority, there would have been no point in me trying to deal with his delusional beliefs at this point as this takes time and experience, of which I had neither, plus Toms panic levels were so high it was difficult for him to concentrate. Therefore it seemed logical to concentrate on something which it was perhaps possible to change. I hoped that using the deep breathing technique would be successful in helping return Toms body systems to normal which would stop the hyperventilating making Tom feel a lot better and knew that breathing techniques could be very effective but did not want to put Tom at any risk by doing so, I had to make a judgment call about how I was going to handle the situation and decided I was going to try and deal with it using the breathing exercise. Relaxation Techniques Deep breathing The next topic I am going to cover is Relaxation Techniques and the technique of Deep Breathing in particular, I feel it is important to cover this topic as it was a key factor in the outcome of the incident as by guiding Tom through the breathing technique, enabled him to control his breathing resulting in his panic attack and hyperventilating coming to an end. Toms physical symptoms indicated that he was hyperventilating or overbreathing, the mental health handbook (Trevor Powell, 2001) tells us this is a normal response to threat by our bodies to bring more oxygen to the muscles, preparing us for Fight or Flight, but if the extra O2 is not needed by the muscles, i.e. the situation is only an imagined threat as in Toms case, the normal level of gases in the blood and lungs becomes out of balance, due to breathing in to much oxygen (O2) and pushing out too much carbon dioxide (CO2), this causes the blood to become alkaline which brings on many of the unpleasant symptoms Tom was suffering from. There are several ways of overcoming hyperventilation, possibly the most commonly referred to, is breathing into a paper bag to facilitate the breathing back in of the carbon dioxide being breathed out, as explained in the Nursing Times article, Facts: Panic Attacks (2003), which also acknowledges the importance of controlling the patients breathing, Stuart and Laraia (2001) also agree that relaxation techniques are an accepted therapeutic intervention in the treatment of anxiety. Since I had no paper bag with me, I decided to use the three stage deep breathing technique to retrain Toms breathing which, Risser and Murphy (2005) agree, improves panic symptoms and associated disability, this type of breathing which is commonly used in yoga helped to slow down and control Toms breathing which also stopped him hyperventilating, it is carried out by: Inhaling slowly and deeply through your nose. When youve taken in a full breath, hold it for a moment and thenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Exhale slowly through the nose or mouth, depending on your preference. This action although different to the paper bag technique brings about the same desired effect, in the case of Deep Breathing carbon dioxide is not being re-breathed but the rate it is expelled by is being slowed down along with holding it a little longer in the lungs which results in the levels of carbon dioxide in the blood rising, correcting the acid/alkaline balance in the blood, which relieved Toms unpleasant symptoms, bringing his breathing rate back to normal and making him feel calmer. At the time of the incident I really hoped that the breathing technique would be successful although I was not entirely sure whether to trust my instincts and try it out. On reflection I was very impressed at how effective such a simple procedure could be and was glad not only for Toms sake but also my own that I had decided to try it out, as it gave me more confidence in my abilities as a nurse even though at the time I was carrying it out, although outwardly calm, I had felt quite anxious. Touch Therapy The final key issue I wish to highlight from the critical incident is the benefit of touch as a therapy, which I felt was vital as a way of communicating with Tom during his panic attack along with giving him reassurance that I was there for him, empathising with his situation and helping him focus on what we were trying to do. There are several terms used to describe the different types of touch used in nursing, some of which are: necessary touch which covers task and instrumental touch that is mostly used when a procedure or task needs to be carried out on a patient as opposed to non-necessary touch which is described as spontaneous and emotional physical contact between the nurse and patient, introduced by Routasalo (1996), expressive touch comes under the non-necessary touch umbrella with the same type of nurse patient contact, described by McCann McKenna (1993) which is similar again to caring and protective touch highlighted by Estabrooks (1989) and finally therapeutic touch, which is an alternative therapy similar to reiki, discussed by Meehan (1998). Nesbitt-Blondis and Jackson (1982) agree that touch is probably the most important of all non-verbal communications that we use in nursing and can be particularly useful in cases like Toms panic attack where his ability to understand and communicate was diminished, when patients are unable to communicate verbally or understand verbal communication for reasons such as dementia, those with learning or cognitive difficulties and in panic attack situations like Toms, touch can be an excellent means of communication. Unfortunately, McCann McKenna (1993) reported that in the U.K. there is little use of expressive, non-necessary or caring touch by nurses. Many nurses see touch as just something that is used when a procedure or task needs to be carried out on a patient, but Tutton (1998) suggests that touch in nursing and the powerful expressions it conveys to patients are sadly underutilised. Routasalo (1996) also suggests that non-essential touch although not absolutely essential, can be extremely important and necessary to the patient. The benefits of this type of touch in nursing are strengthened further by Moore Gilbert (1995) who found patients interpreted the use of touch by nurses as a display of affection and attention which they greatly appreciated, with patients interviewed in Routasalo Isolas (1996) study, describing touch by nurses as extremely comforting. Davidhizar Giger (1997) whilst acknowledging the important role that touch can play in the nurse patient relationship, also points out that the value of touch is not appreciated by all health professionals or considered appropriate or desirable by some patients. Bearing this in mind as long as the correct manner of touching is employed, and there is no way it could be seen as being inappropriate with the patients personal and cultural beliefs being taken into account, it is one of our most valuable communication nursing tools. The extent of physical contact carried out in a society is governed by sets of well-defined behavioural norms for whatever circumstance we find ourselves in (Pratt Mason 1981). Jourard (1966) recognised that the incidence of touching within our Western society declines from childhood onwards but Montagu (1986) discovered that the need for touch did not reduce with age. It is felt that the level of touch common in childhood can return in situations of sickness or incapacity (Barnett 1972). This may mean that, the need for touch in illness might be more important than our ideas of proper behaviour. I felt the touch element in this incident: my taking of Toms hands to help him focus, get his attention and convey my empathy, was extremely important and was in fact the turning point in the whole incident which allowed me to gain Toms trust and initiate the breathing technique which stopped him hyperventilating. I feel that without the touch element it would have been almost impossible for me to reach Tom and the outcome of the incident would have been very different. Implications for Professional and Personal Development In this final section of the Critical Incident Analysis, the two final stages of Gibbs model of reflection (1988), five and six are covered, here we look at what was learned from the incident, what could have been carried out differently or should not have been done, along with what was missed out concluding with a plan for future action. I found in utilising the Gibbs (1998) reflection tool, the impact the incident made on my personal and professional development was made much clearer. Through carrying out this Critical Incident Analysis I have been able to see what I have learned through reflection, as the Department of Health (1999) states, reflective practice is necessary in order to further our continued personal and professional development and leads to a greater understanding of our own needs. Described as a form of self discovery by Freshwater (2004) with a deeper understanding of the needs of the patient and improved patent care highlighted by Davies (1995). From this I feel the analysis made me examine my communication skills on a deeper level for although I feel that I am a natural communicator, and have had many years experience working with people suffering from dementia, I had not fully thought about the use of touch or the great importance it has in communicating with patients . Without the use of reflective practice I would not have researched into the concept of touch so fully or really understood its relevance and consequences in my nursing practice. Or recognised the significance touch played in the successful deescalating of Toms panic attack and hyperventilating in this critical incident. This Critical Incident Analysis has definitely taught me to have more faith in my abilities as a nurse but has also taught me I have more to learn as a communicator. Similarly with the topic of panic attacks which I was obviously familiar with and had some knowledge on, having been through the incident with Tom and then carrying out the reflection on the incident, allowed me to see the field of panic and anxiety disorders with a deeper understanding and much more from the patients viewpoint. Having witnessed the real distress and levels of disability it can inflict will enable me to really empathise with patients like Tom going through this type of disorder when I come across them in my future career. The area of relaxation breathing was something which I had used myself in yoga practice and did know of its benefit in anxiety situations, but I had not expected to have to start teaching it to a patient that day in the X-Ray cubicle. I was quite shocked when Tom had began hyperventilating but on reflection I should have perhaps saw it coming with his rising levels of anxiety after our arrival at the hospital, especially after I had read only that morning that he had a history of panic attacks. Again on reflection I could have asked the nursing staff the best way to deal with it should the situation arise. I have learned from this that I could have been better prepared before escorting Tom by asking questions and having a plan of action to use if necessary. I had been worried about putting Tom at risk by trying the breathing technique with him as I stated earlier, and perhaps it was wrong of me to have tried it in the first place, but I had made a judgment in an emergency situation, and I did not make the decision lightly, being aware that help was nearby should it be needed. I did not want to distress Tom further by calling out, resulting in people rushing into the cubicle and in conclusion felt the breathing exercise was worth a try, but I would have called for help quickly if it did not appear to be working. On discussing the incident and my actions back on the ward, my mentor also felt I had made the right choice. This made me think about the fact that as a nurse there are times when it is up to you to make judgment calls regarding patient care and that it is important to remember that you are accountable for your actions. To carry this level of responsibility demands a sound knowledge of practice and an ability to think calmly and clearly even under stress. I was both relived and delighted that the breathing technique worked so well for Tom and felt honoured that he decided to put his faith in me. As stated earlier, this prompted Tom to confide some of his fears to me, which showed trust on Toms part and fostered a deeper understanding of his condition on mine. This advancement of the therapeutic relationship between Tom and I has continued during my placement where I have worked quite closely with him and where I have taught him how to practice the breathing techniques when he feels calm making it easier for him to utilise in panic situations, which he has been doing with good effect. As a follow on from this incident and after seeing the efficacy of relaxation techniques in action, at my practice placement I asked my mentor if it would be possible to carry out some relaxation groups with carefully screened groups of patients who had anxiety problems. My mentor and other nursing staff thought this would be a good idea both for the benefit of the patients and for my personal and professional development. After researching the subject and finding appropriate music along with compiling a script, the groups were initiated with great success and are now regularly used on the ward, which has given me some sense of achievement and helped build my confidence in my abilities as a nurse. Along with being very beneficial in analysing this particular incident the use of reflective analysis has definitely improved my practice in placement, and although I have used this model of reflection in my portfolio for some time now, it has made me re-examine the importance keeping and using a portfolio to further my professional and personal development. I also feel this helps me to benefit more from my placement as I fully understand the concept behind reflection and use it positively as a tool rather than a task I need to perform. When using reflection now I am able to draw more insight from my experiences on placement, while previously I had only skimmed the surface of the subjects when carrying out reflection. This has increased both my self awareness and my ability to link theory and practice together. Overall, I can see clearly how reflection is a useful tool in helping nurses to focus on their skills and behaviour which consequently enables them to provide the best care possible for patients, as discussed by Somerville (2004). Action Plan Preparing and utilising action plans is an important way of improving both our personal and professional development as nurses, whilst building on improved nursing practice. To be prepared for this kind of scenario in the future I have identified the following plan of action: Make sure I know and understand all relevant information regarding patients. Have good communication with other members of staff about patients. Have a plan of action thought out for any incidents that may arise. Remain calm and consider actions carefully. Empathise with the patient by trying to understand what it would be like to be in that situation. Where possible help the patient to help themselves, i.e. by educating them to use breathing techniques so when a panic situation arises they are in a better position to take control themselves.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Imposing Our Own Ideological Frameworks onto Virginia Woolf and Her Wr

Imposing Our Own Ideological Frameworks onto Virginia Woolf and Her Writing Whenever we try to imagine the feelings or motives of a writer, we impose our own thoughts and ideas, our own biases, onto that person and their work. Perhaps in order to justify our choices or legitimate the philosophies that we hold dear, we interpret texts so that they fall into place in our own ideological frameworks. Literature, because it engages with the most important and passionate questions in life, evokes responses in readers that emanate not only from the mind but also from the subconscious and from the deepest places in the heart. Writers like Virginia Woolf ask, and sometimes answer, questions about life's meaning, about the nature and importance of relationships, about spirituality, work, family, identity and so on. It is what makes writing fascinating and the critiquing of writing something more than an intellectual exercise. When we interpret a text, we bring our own hopes, fears, joys and beliefs to the forefront, despite our claims of intellectual objectivity, and what is at stake is not just an evaluation of the work itself, but often an evaluation of our political, social, psychological and emotional identities. What we see or read into a text can become a kind of experiment, a literary depiction of the way we see, or would like to see, and interpret ourselves and our world. Often, in the course of interpreting, we feel compelled to name and label both writer and text in order to talk about them in ways that make sense to us, and in order to pinpoint them in relation to ourselves. When we label anything, we attempt to control or own it; we assign values or a set of rules to that person or object. What is lost in that process... ... Voyage Out." Modern Fiction Studies 38.1(1992): 269. Meese, Elizabeth. "When Virginia Looked at Vita, What Did She See; or, Lesbian: Feminist: Woman - What's the differ(e/a)nce?" Feminist Studies 18.1 (1992):105. Nicolson, Nigel. Portrait of a Marriage. New York: Atheneum, 1973. Nicolson, Nigel and Joanne Trautmann, eds. The Letters of Virginia Woolf. Vol. 3. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1977. Smith, Patricia Juliana. Lesbian Panic: Homoeroticism in Modern British Women's Fiction. New York: Columbia UP, 1997. Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One's Own. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1979. --- . "A Sketch of the Past." Moments of Being. Ed. Jeanne Schulkind. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1976. --- . Mrs. Dalloway. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1925. --- . Three Guineas. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1938. --- . To the Lighthouse. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1927. Imposing Our Own Ideological Frameworks onto Virginia Woolf and Her Wr Imposing Our Own Ideological Frameworks onto Virginia Woolf and Her Writing Whenever we try to imagine the feelings or motives of a writer, we impose our own thoughts and ideas, our own biases, onto that person and their work. Perhaps in order to justify our choices or legitimate the philosophies that we hold dear, we interpret texts so that they fall into place in our own ideological frameworks. Literature, because it engages with the most important and passionate questions in life, evokes responses in readers that emanate not only from the mind but also from the subconscious and from the deepest places in the heart. Writers like Virginia Woolf ask, and sometimes answer, questions about life's meaning, about the nature and importance of relationships, about spirituality, work, family, identity and so on. It is what makes writing fascinating and the critiquing of writing something more than an intellectual exercise. When we interpret a text, we bring our own hopes, fears, joys and beliefs to the forefront, despite our claims of intellectual objectivity, and what is at stake is not just an evaluation of the work itself, but often an evaluation of our political, social, psychological and emotional identities. What we see or read into a text can become a kind of experiment, a literary depiction of the way we see, or would like to see, and interpret ourselves and our world. Often, in the course of interpreting, we feel compelled to name and label both writer and text in order to talk about them in ways that make sense to us, and in order to pinpoint them in relation to ourselves. When we label anything, we attempt to control or own it; we assign values or a set of rules to that person or object. What is lost in that process... ... Voyage Out." Modern Fiction Studies 38.1(1992): 269. Meese, Elizabeth. "When Virginia Looked at Vita, What Did She See; or, Lesbian: Feminist: Woman - What's the differ(e/a)nce?" Feminist Studies 18.1 (1992):105. Nicolson, Nigel. Portrait of a Marriage. New York: Atheneum, 1973. Nicolson, Nigel and Joanne Trautmann, eds. The Letters of Virginia Woolf. Vol. 3. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1977. Smith, Patricia Juliana. Lesbian Panic: Homoeroticism in Modern British Women's Fiction. New York: Columbia UP, 1997. Woolf, Virginia. A Room of One's Own. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1979. --- . "A Sketch of the Past." Moments of Being. Ed. Jeanne Schulkind. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1976. --- . Mrs. Dalloway. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1925. --- . Three Guineas. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1938. --- . To the Lighthouse. San Diego: Harcourt Brace, 1927.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Uniting the People and Government

By the end of World War II, the nations of Western Europe all faced the burdens of the post-war economies. If not totally destroyed, a nation was in chaos and needed dramatic reconstruction. This is where democratic societies stepped in; recreation of sturdy government was crucial to the revival of Western European countries. Within just a few years after the defeat of Italy and Germany, the European hemisphere bounced back into a stronger, more efficient society than ever before. Some call this the â€Å"Golden Age of the European economy. † As human life became more and more complex and difficult to manage, the government had to accommodate to the citizen†s needs and wants. Because of the basic importance of the contemporary social structure, its management had a crucial importance in making the countries work. Europe was used to strict authority over its people and complexity in the way they handles a countries affairs was not accepted. â€Å"Europe was a very special situation though, because it has a long record of traditional social control imposed over the individual by collective authorities, especially the state, and hierarchal religious institutions. Another problem that was going on in modern Western Europe† (pg. 21, Crozier) the military grew in size a great deal, West European armed forces grew from forty-two thousand to almost eighty thousand within five years after the Second World War. Especially in the country of France. With the militant group emerging larger than ever, the government was working! with more citizens first hand, by supporting the working military group. One of the main pieces to making a modern democracy work was inducing the people to want to partake in the government and have them strive to get involved with the mending of the societal crisis. All post war European countries had to live through the same costly situation of having to restore their country†s trade, government, social harmony, be at peace with the government, and relinquish all other aspects of damages caused by the intolerances that came along with traditional thinking. In the United States, the country was working by the people, for the people, in all efforts to be a united, strong country. Automatic freedoms of speech, press, and religion, gave the people the reassurance that things were being done to assist them in everyday life. Sixty five million dollars alone went into healthcare, unemployment, social services, community programs, and better education for children, and progra! ms for the working class. Also, anyone who was educated had a chance to run for various forms of government positions, which meant the citizens could first hand, come out and take part in the government. Some positions include senators, mayors, councilmen, governors, seats in congress and House of Representatives. Where else but America could you find opportunities such as these? Divisions once created by war and intolerance led to the modern developing of NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). This was a form of military unity, which was important to Western Europe after 1945. It helped heal wounds with competing countries in the trade world, and have peace between once warring countries. Many other European peace treaties were signed during the 60†³s and 70†³s. These primarily helped the democratic people altogether because peace smoothed over tense conditions for European citizens. These treaties include the European Coal and Steel Community and the EEC or common! market. In the 1980†³s, a treaty on the European Union, integrated even more countries for a peaceful trade system. After signed in the small country of the Netherlands, an attempt to create a true economic and monetary union of all EC (EEC) members. One of the most interesting facts, coming into play in ever most recent times, is that a goal of the EC was to introduce an absolute worldwide common currency that could be found almost everywhere, called the â€Å"Euro†, dated to be out 2002. Even now in present days, the Euro dollar is heard of as an idea that some forms of government want to pursue. The fact is, democracy does not work without the people playing a crucial role in government. If your government is constantly telling you exactly how to live your life, what you must believe in, cheating you out your dollar, and totally undermining the working class, you are going to see no progress in that society. Basically, with Western Europe having the least amount of acceptance of variety and having little tolerance for true societal freedom, a great democracy cannot exist. This is why the United States has grown to be the most powerful and well off country of all times. The creators of our ever-evolving democracy here in America just goes to show, that caring about the people who make up our â€Å"democracy† gives them the strength and will to work together to make anything work and to truly peruse happiness. Thank God for America!

Friday, November 8, 2019

Video and Activity Domestic Workers Essays

Video and Activity Domestic Workers Essays Video and Activity Domestic Workers Essay Video and Activity Domestic Workers Essay Video and Activity Domestic Workers It is through work that we find to fulfill our purpose here on earth. According to John Paul II, work is a fundamental aspect of the existence of humankind. Work is indeed an important element of transforming the earth as well as adapting the earth to suit the needs. There are many forms and nature of work, in all these forms work should be dignified, and in this way, all workers should enjoy their full rights. The role of women in domestic work should be viewed more closely with dignity as many of them have faced a lot of injustices in the past, present and could still perpetuate. The rights of workers are very imperative and must be observed at all costs. Many governments do not consider domestic workers as relevant employees, and this should not be the case. The entire labor process has to be organized to meet the needs of women and men at work. The rights of all workers should be safeguarded by their direct employers as well as indirect employers. Domestic workers in many countries face torture, oppression, sexual harassment and other forms of abuse with poor working conditions. John Paul II view work in a spiritual manner. He believes that by sharing in work human being contributes to the creation process since Jesus is happy with those who work as he was also a laborer. In conclusion, dignity is an important aspect of domestic labor and employers should work towards ensuring all their workers are treated with respect. Domestic work is not an easy task and should also be considered a form of labor that should be remunerated well with good working condition s.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Mailing Gifts to Canada Without Duties or Taxes

Mailing Gifts to Canada Without Duties or Taxes Sending gifts to Canada by mail can incur taxes and fees, just as mailing things to people in other countries does. When you mail presents and other non-commercial presents to friends or relatives in Canada, consider the rules about duties and taxes before arriving at the shipping retailer of your choice. Exempt Gifts Gifts sent to individuals in Canada are exempt from duties and taxes if: The item is worth less than $60 CAN (Be mindful of exchange rates)The item sent is clearly a personal gift and includes a card or notice indicating that it is a gift Gifts That Are Taxed If the gift is worth more than $60 CAN, the recipient will have to pay applicable duties and sales taxes on the value of the gift over $60 CAN. Also, the $60 gift exemption does not apply to tobacco, alcoholic beverages, or advertising material, nor does it apply to  items sent by a business, company, or association. All of these packages would incur fees upon delivery. Getting Around Gift Taxes Taxes and fees cant simply be avoided by giving the gift to the recipient in person, though the recipient can use a personal exemption for gifts if they transport them. Also, the $60 gift exemption cannot be combined with the regular $20 mail exemption available for all items.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

If and when I raise children, I'll never Assignment

If and when I raise children, I'll never - Assignment Example I shall also try not to have arguments with my partner when my child is around so that s/he always feels secure. I shall never try to compare my child with any other child. Instead I shall encourage my child to work harder and also try new things so s/he may find where his/her aptitude lies. I will try to set up a solid support system at home that will reassure my little one that no matter what, we will always be there for him/her and our love will always be as strong. My child’s health will be a major concern and I shall always strive to keep the child away from passive smoking – meaning a strict no smoking at home, and reduce to the minimum unhealthy eating. Stressing the importance of a healthy mind in a healthy body will be an important part of my efforts to raise my child. I shall encourage the child to play outdoor games and maintain hygienic habits. I would like my child to develop the ability to keep an open mind and not rush to conclusions without due thought and consideration. I shall therefore encourage reading habits and logical thinking. I think a parent’s listening skills are very important to a child’s overall development. I shall never brush aside the child’s fears or doubts. I shall set time aside for my child in order to give him/her the confidence to be able to confide problems or worries thus helping avoid major disturbances. I sincerely hope that when I do become a parent, I shall be a good one and bring up a physically and emotionally well-balanced human

Friday, November 1, 2019

SAME SEX MARRIGE Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

SAME SEX MARRIGE - Research Paper Example f same-sex marriage, and whereas there are people who say they should be legalized and rely upon the equal rights for everyone, including gay persons, there are also those who find a lot of arguments against the legalization of homosexual marriages. Mostly those opposing the same-sex marriages claim that the gay people are normally not in the habit to be faithful to each other. However this can hardly serve as a reasonable and sound argument as not all hererosexuals are faithful and devoted husbands and wives. Taking into account that there are multiple benefits (social and emotional) for people who get married, it becomes clear that it would be unfair to deprive gays and lesbians of their right to get married only on the ground of their sexual orientation. In fact, in many countries of the world and some states of America homosexual marriages have already been legalized. So it seems that soon the gay people all over the world will get the right to get married to their partners. There are still, of course, some burning issues that are being argued about and discussed, such as adopting and bringing up children in homosexual families, however even these are being solved now in many world countries basing upon the presupposition of equal rights and equal opportunities for every human being. How can marriage be defined? Marriage is the unity of two people who live together, and this unity should be acknowledged by the society. Such factors as having children, loving each other, and even official recognition (for in some places, it is still possible to marry without registration) are not necessary. It is normally taken for granted by the majority of people that marriages are concluded between two people of different sex; however in the course of history there have been plenty of examples of unities of people of the same gender, and these unities had all features of an â€Å"ordinary† marriage (Sparta, Ancient Greece, Rome, Ancient China and Japan). If we talk about

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Islamic Culture (week 9) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Islamic Culture (week 9) - Essay Example By following this etiquette of differing the Muslim society can maintain the characteristics of love and brotherhood between Muslims (Al-Hashmi, 2007). It is easy for the people to control themselves during the situation of agreement and behave in proper manner. However, when people enter into any kind of disagreement it gets difficult for them to behave in appropriate manner. In order to justify their argument and point of view people indulge in unethical way of arguing which at times also leads to fighting. It is acceptable to have a different opinions regarding any specific topic or matter. The acceptable disagreements allow the people to get hold of different viewpoints with strong evidence and increase their knowledge. However, there are some etiquette of differing in the Muslim society which should be followed by the Muslims. Some of these etiquettes are as follow (Al-Hashmi, 2007): Muslims should use appropriate and good words while arguing and debating with other people and should avoid the use of harsh words, as mentioned in Holy Quran: ‘And Speak good to the people’. [Soorah al-Baqarah 2:83] The purpose of discussion should be to get clarification and to identify truth. The reason behind the discussion or differing opinion should not be for the purpose of satisfying ego or for feeling proud. Lastly, the parties and people involved in debate or discussion should respect the opinion of other people and if no agreement or mutual result is achieved the debate should be ended on positive notes (Baianonie, 1998). Islam has provided the concept of harmony, peace, love, and brotherhood between the Muslims and whole mankind. The concept of brotherhood and harmony among the Muslims is an important element in Islam and huge emphasis have been placed on it from the very start. It is important and essential to maintain the characteristics of love and brotherhood between Muslims because it

Monday, October 28, 2019

Thesis guidelines Essay Example for Free

Thesis guidelines Essay The Use and Purpose of the Guidelines At the Faculty of Technology, there are five different guidelines for writing theses: guideline for bachelor’s degree in business studies, guideline for bachelor’s degree in technology, guideline for master’s degree in business studies, guideline for master’s degree in technology, and general writing guideline for the Faculty of Technology. The guidelines for specific degrees contain instructions for the structure, printing and submitting of the theses. The general writing guideline contains information about the formatting of text and the use of sources and references. The student is required to use two of these guidelines, 1) general writing guideline for the Faculty of Technology and 2) guideline for appropriate degree. The purpose of the above guidelines is to ensure that theses at the faculty fulfil the requirements concerning academic writing and layout. This guideline is for students studying at Faculty of Technology and writing their master’s thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Economics and Business Administration. In addition, students are required to use the general guideline for the Faculty of Technology. 2 TABLE OF CONTENTS page 1. MASTER’S THESIS AND ITS PURPOSE 4 2. FROM MASTER’S THESIS TO GRADUATION 5 2. 1. Thesis Subject 5 2. 2. Credits 5 2. 3. Supervision 5 2. 4. Assessment, Approval and Grading 5 2. 5. Maturity Essay 7 2. 6. Publicity 9 2. 7. Further Details 10 3. MASTER’S THESES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES 11 4. THE STRUCTURE OF THE MASTER’S THESIS 12 4. 1. Title 12 4. 2. Covers 12 4. 3. General notes on printing and editing 13 4. 4. Title page 13 4. 5. Abstract 14 5. EDITING THE MASTER’S THESIS 15 5. 1. Introduction 15 5. 2. Theory and background information 15 5. 3. Main subject of the thesis 16 5. 4. Discussion and results. 17 5. 5. Conclusions 17 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1. Glossary 19 19 3 APPENDIX 2. Title page of a Master? s Thesis 22 APPENDIX 3. Abstract page of a Master? s Thesis 23 APPENDIX 4. Assessment criteria for master’s theses and licentiate theses 24 4 1. MASTER’S THESIS AND ITS PURPOSE According to regulations concerning the degree Master of Science in Economics and Business Administration (higher university degree), the student is required to write a master’s thesis (pro gradu) and pass a written maturity essay. Master’s thesis is a personal independent academic work prepared by the student. The student is advised to start preparing the master’s thesis in the second year of higher degree studies. The student has to sign up for a research seminar group of the major subject. The master’s thesis must show familiarity with previous work in the field and must demonstrate ability to use research methods and academic style. The aim of the master’s thesis is to improve the student’s ability for independent research work and its practical application as well as to enable the student to apply different research methods both independently and in groups. Furthermore, master’s thesis must demonstrate the student’s ability to use relevant literature and to present research results as well as show ability for doctoral studies. 5 2. FROM MASTER’S THESIS TO GRADUATION 2. 1. Thesis Subject The student has to prepare a master’s thesis in order to obtain the degree of Master of Science in Economics and Business Administration (higher university degree). The subject of the thesis is suggested by the student and approved by the thesis supervisor of the major department. Teachers may provide help in choosing the subject. 2. 2. Credits. During the advanced level studies of master’s degree studies, the student prepares a master’s thesis, which comprises 30 ECTS. 2. 3. Supervision The Master’s thesis is supervised by a teacher of the major field. The supervisor gives general guidance during the writing process and more detailed advice when necessary. The supervisor gives feedback about the thesis and may ask the student to report on the progress of the work. 2. 4. Assessment, Approval and Grading The thesis must be submitted to the faculty in 3 or 4 bound copies. One copy should be submitted to each examiner of the thesis. In addition, one or two copies should be submitted to the Amanuensis, depending on whether or not the student gives permission to publish the thesis online in Tritonia database. An electronic copy of the whole thesis and an abstract must be saved to the Tritonia’s database regardless of the student’s 6 decision on public availability. The work and abstract are submitted to Tritonia by filling in a thesis form at http://www. tritonia. fi/? d=140l=1. The thesis cannot be approved unless the work is successfully submitted to Tritonia. Theses copies submitted to the University are not returned to the student. One copy of the thesis must be submitted to the Amanuensis if the student allows his or her work to be made publicly available outside the Tritonia network. If the wok is not to be shown publicly, two copies must be submitted. In addition, an abstract without page number must be submitted to the Amanuensis of the Faculty of Technology. The student should submit only the abstract which is written in the language used in the thesis. The evaluation time for a Master’s thesis is 30 days. This means that the thesis has to be left to the examiners and the Amanuensis for evaluation approximately 5 weeks before the expected acceptance date. If the Master’s thesis is the last study attainment of the student, it should be available for the Dean’s decision at least 10 days before the deadline for submitting the application for degree certificate (which is 28 days before the graduation day). The Dean usually processes theses two times each month. It is recommended that students check the schedule for graduation well beforehand from the university web pages at http://www. uwasa. fi/english/studies/degree-and-postgraduatestudents/academic-information/graduation/. The schedule of the Dean’s thesis processing is available from the Amanuensis, if needed. Two evaluators assigned by the Head of the appropriate department make a statement about the thesis to the Dean within 30 days of the day the thesis is submitted for evaluation. Usually one of the evaluators is the supervisor of the thesis. The student is reserved the right to see the statements and a suggestion for the grading before the work is taken to the Dean for approval. The Dean decides on approval of the thesis and confirms the grade based on the statements and suggestion made by the examiners. The grading scale for Master’s thesis is sufficient, satisfactory, good, very good, and excellent. After the Dean’s decision has been made, the student will receive a notification about the grade of the thesis and a copy of the evaluators’ statement by post. 7 The student dissatisfied with the thesis grading may apply to the degree committee of the University of Vaasa in writing for rectification of the evaluation of the Masters thesis within 14 days of the day when the grade was released (Universities Act 558/2009, Section 82, and the University of Vaasa Degree Ordinance, Section 13). An appeal cannot be made against the decision made by the degree committee on the request for rectification of the decision concerning the evaluation of a study attainment. 2. 5. Maturity Essay In order to obtain the degree of Master of Science in Economics and Business Administration, the student also has to pass a written maturity essay. In the maturity essay, the student is expected to demonstrate knowledge of the subject matter of the master’s thesis in a supervised examination. In addition, the student is expected to show ability to write fluent Finnish or Swedish (see exceptions below). Finnish students write the maturity essay in the language in which the student has received elementary education (Finnish or Swedish). A completed maturity essay in the language of elementary education gives the student excellent language proficiency in the appropriate language (in compliance with Decree A 481/2003). In case the student has already completed a maturity essay for a bachelor’s degree in the same language, the maturity essay for the higher degree concerns only content, not language proficiency. In this case, the language of the maturity essay is determined by the faculty (see Decree on University Degrees, section 16 subsection 3; or the University of Vaasa Degree Ordinance, Section 17). The same applies in all cases where the student has already completed a maturity essay for another higher education degree; the maturity essay concerns only content. Students who have completed their elementary education in a language other than Finnish or Swedish or have received elementary education outside Finland are not 8 required to prove their language proficiency in the maturity essay. Also in these cases the language of the maturity essay is determined by the faculty. International students who have not received their elementary education in Finnish or Swedish but have obtained sufficient language proficiency in Finnish or Swedish may complete their maturity essay in Finnish or Swedish. In this case, language proficiency is assessed according to the criteria used for Finnish students. A successfully completed maturity essay gives the student good language proficiency in Finnish or Swedish in compliance with Decree A 481/2003, and it will be stated in the degree certificate as well. The Maturity essay can be completed on any of the general examination days. Registration must be made with a form and registration envelope available at the Academic Affairs office. The form is available also at the web pages of the Language Centre. The student may register for the maturity essay only after the Master’s thesis has been left for inspection in its final form. The examination date for maturity essay must be agreed on with the thesis supervisor and should be at least 7 days after the thesis has been left for inspection. In the maturity essay, the student is given two or three questions on the subject of the student’s master’s thesis. The student is required to answer one of the questions by an essay. The essay should be written for a reader that is familiar with the appropriate field but has not studied the specific research topic of the master’s thesis. In other words, the maturity essay should comprise an independent text and the student should not assume that the reader is familiar with the master’s thesis. In addition to academic content, the essay must also demonstrate good language proficiency and comprise a logical, well-structured whole. It must present the topic in writing, not by graphical presentations like tables or charts. The essay must also have a heading (otherwise the examiner evaluating the language of the thesis will not be able to see whether the essay really answers the question). The essay must have an introduction and a conclusion. Suggested length of the essay is approximately one examination sheet 9 (four pages). It should be written on each line of the paper with empty lines separating between paragraphs. After the first draft, it is advisable to rewrite the maturity essay, with special emphasis on clear handwriting. Words should be clearly separate and the difference between capital and lower case letters should be clearly shown. The essay must show knowledge of the basics of grammar and punctuation. Excessive use of abbreviations should be avoided. Sentences and clauses must be clearly connected, and they should be logical and show variation. Incorrect reference relationships must be avoided. Word order must be unambiguous and fit the structure of the presented information. The essay must be written in a factual style. Further advice is available at: www. uwasa. fi/kielipalvelut/opiskelu/kypsyysnayte/. The result of the maturity essay must be given within 30 days from the date of examination. The grading scale for maturity essay is pass/fail (no other grade). In case the maturity essay is failed on the basis of its content, the student must meet with the thesis supervisor in order to receive feedback before registering for a retake. If the reason for failing is related to problems in the language, the student must contact the examiner responsible for evaluating the language of the essay. 2. 6. Publicity All theses are public documents. According to the Act on the Openness of Government Activities (621/1999), official documents shall be in the public domain, unless specifically otherwise provided by the law. A master’s thesis becomes public when it has been officially approved. With commissioned theses, the commissioner may demand that a thesis or parts of it have to remain non-public in order to protect business or professional secrets. In this case, those parts of the work that contain such secrets are not integrated into the master’s thesis, but annexed to the thesis as background material. The background 10  material must conform to the general guidelines on writing master’s thesis and must be left for inspection at the same time and in as many copies as the master’s thesis. The background material is not bound together with the master’s thesis but submitted separately with its own title page and titled BACKGROUND MATERIAL. However, general, non-specific information from the background material should be incorporated in the text of the master’s thesis whenever possible. The minimum requirements for the master’s thesis proper are that it specifies the theoretical framework, research methods, material and its analysis, and has a list of references. It must comprise an independent, readable whole. Background material is evaluated together with the actual master’s thesis but is not made public. After the evaluation, the background material is archived and kept in a secure place at the appropriate department. Use of non-public background material must always be discussed in advance with the thesis supervisor. 2. 7. Further Details For information on layout and other technical details of mater’s thesis, see faculty’s general guidelines on writing theses. Further advice is given by the staff of the faculty and departments. 11 3. MASTER’S THESES IN FOREIGN LANGUAGES The student may write the master’s thesis also in languages other than Finnish or Swedish. For practical reasons, this language is usually English as the evaluators of the thesis have to master the language in order to be able to evaluate the academic quality of the thesis. Using a language other than Finnish or Swedish must always be discussed with the thesis supervisor in advance. International students are advised to consult the thesis supervisor and amanuensis about their thesis and maturity essay before they start preparing their master’s thesis. The student is personally responsible for expenses resulting from for example use of language consultant etc. Appendix 1 shows the names of the departments, subjects, study programmes and modules in Swedish, and English. 12 4. THE STRUCTURE OF THE MASTER’S THESIS Master’s thesis can be structured as follows: Title page Table of contents (Symbols and abbreviations) (Pictures) (Tables) Abstract Introduction Main body text (methods, discussion, results) Conclusions List of references Appendices Parts in parentheses are not compulsory. 4. 1. Title. The title of the master’s thesis should be short, clear and expressive of the content (field and orientation). The student may use a subtitle in order to add focus to the title. No abbreviations should be used in the title. 4. 2. Covers The master’s thesis must be bound in hard, dark blue covers (marble blue for licentiate theses for the Faculty of Technology), page size A4. It is advisable to reserve enough time for the printing process – at least a week. 13 Lettering on the front cover should appear in the colour Gold and font Palatino, Times New Roman or equivalent: MASTER’S THESIS or LICENTIATE THESIS. Centred, bottom margin 200mm (font size 34pt) Author’s name (bottom right corner with 30–35 mm margins from bottom and right, font size 20 pt) Lettering on the spine of the thesis should appear in the colour Gold and font as above: Author’s name (on the left of the spine with 40mm margin on left) Year of publication (on the right of the spine with 30mm margin on right) 4. 3. General notes on printing and editing The student should pay attention to the printing quality of the master’s thesis. The hard copy of the master’s thesis should be printed out with a laser printer or equivalent. When attaching images, tables or appendices, care should be taken so that the final thesis is free of smudges and extra marks. The thesis must be printed, single-sided, on standard A4 paper. 4. 4. Title page The title page must follow the format requirements (appendix 2). Title page must state the following: University of Vaasa, Faculty of Technology, study subject (in capital letters, bolded and centred) Author’s name (centred) Title of the thesis (in capital letters, bolded and centred) and possible subtitle (bolded and centred) Study subject and the type of thesis (right alignment). Possible study programme (right alignment) Place (in capital letters and bolded) and year (bolded) 14 Title page should not be numbered 4. 5. Abstract The master’s thesis must include a one-page abstract (in Finnish/Swedish and in English, international students only in English). The abstract page is numbered and bound after list of symbols and abbreviations or, in case there is no list of symbols and abbreviations, after table of contents, before introduction. When the thesis is left for inspection, the student must also submit one separate, unnumbered abstract page. The separate abstract must be submitted in the language in which the thesis is written, and it is needed as an enclosure of the acceptance decision. The abstract page must state the research problem, material, research methods and major results of the thesis. The abstract should be understandable without having to consult the thesis itself. In the abstract, the student should use established terminology. References or quotations are not to be used. The title of the master’s thesis on the abstract page must be identical with the title on the title page. See examples of abstract in Appendix 3. Fill out ALL parts of the abstract page and take into consideration the margins of the page. The student must give 1-5 keywords. The first keyword should state, as specifically as possible, the field of study. It is followed by the other keywords which further specify the subject of the thesis. You may discuss the keywords with the assistant or your supervisor, if necessary. Keywords can also be searched from the VESA subject thesaurus of the library of the University of Helsinki. 15 5. EDITING THE MASTER’S THESIS. The master’s thesis consists of an introduction, main body text (which may include several chapters), and a conclusions chapter. The specific content, approach and emphasis of the thesis are chosen by the student and revised according to the supervisor’s comments. There are many different ways to prepare a (good) master’s thesis on the same topic. The only general rule is that the first chapter of the thesis is an introduction and the last presents the conclusions. 5. 1. Introduction The introduction should capture the reader’s interest. It gives the background for the choice of topic and presents the goals of the thesis. It limits the topic and gives a general outline of the approach to the research problem. Furthermore, the introduction should place the thesis in context by referring to other previous or contemporary academic studies on the topic. It also outlines the content and structure of the thesis. In case the thesis is a part of a larger project, the introduction must clearly define the author’s contribution to the project. The introduction does not give any details of the theory, methods or results of the thesis. The length of a typical introduction is 2-3 pages. 5. 2. Theory and background information In the chapter after the introduction, the student should give the technical, theoretical and other background information needed in order to understand the solutions and methods used in the later chapters. The theory part should focus only on things that are relevant to the thesis. However, it should not waste time on things that are self-evident to the reader (in other words, there is no need for a textbook-type presentation of the 16 basics in the field). The student’s own new methods are not presented in this section but given later in the thesis. The ‘ideal reader’ for the thesis could be defined as a person who is a professional in the field but unfamiliar with the particular topic. Thus all terms and symbols are to be explained when they are introduced but not later in the work. If several theories are used, it is advisable to present them in separate chapters. In addition to theory, the background information may include for example a company’s old products, a system that is about to be replaced, important standards, internal policies of a company, and possible other parts of a project (in case the thesis forms part of a larger project). These elements are to be explained in as much detail as is relevant for understanding the solutions in and the overall significance of the thesis. Whether this should be placed in the theory part of the work is case-specific and depends on the amount of background information of the thesis. The background information could also be integrated in the general outline of the thesis or be given in a separate chapter or appendix. A more detailed structuring and titles of the chapters (including the main title) are planned and executed on the basis of the work itself. It is highly important that the theoretical part of the work is closely connected to the later description and analysis of the work. In some clearly constructive work, the theory part may be relatively short. The length, however, is not the mere objective, but emphasis should be put on the contents. 5. 3. Main subject of the thesis After theory and background information, the student should focus on the main subject of the thesis and apply the theory to a specific research problem. The structure, headings and analysis in this section depend on the subject and on the approach chosen by the 17  student (and approved by the supervisor). There is no one correct way to approach the main subject of the thesis. In case the thesis includes scientific data (such as measurements etc. ), the appropriate study or experiment must be explained in such detail that the reader can understand all steps of the process. Methods must be presented in a manner that enables replication. For example the mathematical leads of new findings must be presented in such detail that the reader does not have to make extensive calculations in order to follow the process. In case of generally known methods, a short description or reference is sufficient. Less known methods, especially those developed by the author of the thesis, are to be described in much deeper detail. There should always be a clear connection between the theory and the application sections of the thesis. 5. 4. Discussion and results The last section of the main body text (before conclusions) consists of a ‘Results’ chapter or of two separate chapters with headings ‘Discussion’ and ‘Results’. In ‘Discussions’, the student may make comparisons between theory and (for example) measurement results as well as suggest lines of further research or application. The ‘Results’ chapter should focus primarily on the final results of the study, what the student found out and how it relates to the literature. The results should also be placed in the context of the possible earlier studies on the topic. 5. 5. Conclusions Conclusions chapter briefly summarises the whole thesis from start to finish. Aspects of the work that were discussed in the introduction are revisited in the conclusions chapter in order to find out whether initial plans were followed and initial goals achieved. 18 At the end of the conclusions chapter, the student may discuss possible future research on the subject. If this requires more extensive discussion, it can be placed in a separate chapter at the end. The conclusions chapter should be no more than 3 pages long and should not introduce any new ideas or include references to source materials. 19 APPENDICES APPENDIX 1. Glossary Faculty, departments, study subjects, study programmes and orientations in Swedish and English Teknillinen tiedekunta Tekniska fakulteten Faculty of Technology Matemaattiset tieteet Institutionen for matematik och statistik Department of Mathematics and Statistics Sahko- ja energiatekniikka Institutionen for elektro- och energiteknik. Department of Electrical Engineering and Energy Technology Tieto- ja tietoliikennetekniikka Institutionen for datavetenskap Department of Computer Science Tuotantotalous Institutionen for produktion Department of Production Study subjects: Automaatiotekniikka energiatekniikka automationsteknik energiteknik automation technology energy technology 20 fysiikka fysik physics matematiikka materiaalitekniikka matematik materialteknik mathematics materials science sahkotekniikka talousmatematiikka elektroteknik ekonomisk matematik electrical engineering business mathematics tietoliikennetekniikka telekommunikationsteknik  telecommunications engineering tietotekniikka tilastotiede datavetenskap statistik computer science statistics tuotantotalous produktionsekonomi industrial management Study programmes and orientations: Teknisen viestinnan koulutusohjelma Utbildningsprogram for teknisk kommunikation Technical Communication Programme 21 Tietotekniikan koulutusohjelma ohjelmistotekniikka tietoliikennetekniikka Utbildningsprogrammet for datateknik programmeringsteknik telekommunikationsteknik Degree Programme in Information Technology Software Engineering Telecommunications Engineering Sahko- ja energiatekniikan koulutusohjelma  automaatiotekniikka sahkotekniikka Utbildningsprogrammet for elektro- och energiteknik automationsteknik elektroteknik Degree Programme in Electrical and Energy Engineering Automation Electrical Engineering 22 APPENDIX 2. Title page of a Master? Thesis (partly shortened in the example) UNIVERSITY OF VAASA FACULTY OF TECHNOLOGY SUBJECT (E. G. COMPUTER SCIENCE) Author’s name TOPIC OF THE THESIS Subtitle Master’s Thesis in e. g. Computer Science (Degree Programme) VAASA 20XX 23 APPENDIX 3. Abstract page of a Master? s Thesis UNIVERSITY OF VAASA Faculty of Technology Author: Topic of the Master’s Thesis: Instructor: Degree: First name Last name Name of the thesis (subtitle) First name Last name Master of Science in Economics and Business Administration Major subject: (e. g. Computer Science) Degree Programme: (only if Degree Programme in Multimedia systems and Technical Communication) Year of Entering the University: 20xx Year of Completing the Master’s Thesis: 20xx Pages: xxx ABSTRACT: KEYWORDS 24 APPENDIX 4. Assessment criteria for master’s theses and licentiate theses Grade Theoretical knowledge, literature and sources Strong theoretical knowledge; excellent use of source materials; criticism  of source materials is wellgrounded Research problem Original; shows familiarity with and understanding of the subject. Results are interesting. Strong theoretical knowledge; very good use of source materials; demonstrates the student’s familiarity with the subject 3. No significant flaws in dealing with the subject; study produces clear results Good theoretical knowledge; no significant flaws in use of source materials 2 Inconsistencies or clear mistakes; results are difficult to interpret Satisfactory theoretical knowledge; use of source materials is rather limited; flaws in criticism of source materials  Confusing and difficult to follow; several inconsistencies and mistakes; results are questionable Sufficient familiarity with the subject; theoretical knowledge is limited; number of source materials is limited (often mainly Finnish sources). 5 4 1 General Original; shows independent thinking; results are interesting and make a contribution to knowledge of the subject with which it deals Research method and empirical part Methodologically justified; empirically thorough and systematic Text, structure, language and layout Textually fluent and stylistically excellent; technical documentation is excellent; clear and logical  structure; layout is flawless Clear and well-grounded research problem; questions are well-formulated; good research strategy and approach Methodologically correct; empirically correct Textually fluent; Language and layout are flawless; very good technical documentation; clear and logical structure Good research problem; clearly formulated questions; fairly successful solution to research problem Not clearly formulated or bears some inconsistencies; goal not quite achieved No significant mistakes; empirical part prepared rather well Wrongly or confusingly formulated; academic approach is lacking; goals  not achieved Methodologically weak; serious empirical flaws Textually good; Good technical documentation; no serious weaknesses; very few mistakes; layout fairly flawless Textually rather clumsy; incomplete technical documentation; grammatical errors; some weaknesses in structure; layout problems Textually clumsy; technical documentation is weak and unpolished; grammatical errors; flawed structure; weak layout Interesting and welldefined research problem; challenging questions; mature research strategy and approach Clear methodological and empirical flaws. Thesis process Excellent thesis process;  the student is motivated; agreements were kept; the student took responsibility and shows outstanding ability for independent research Excellent thesis process; the student is motivated; agreements were kept; the student took responsibility and shows good ability for independent research Good thesis process; the student is mostly motivated; agreements were mostly kept Flawed thesis process; the student needed extra guidance; occasional lack of motivation and responsibility The student’s motivation is rather weak; the student needed extra guidance; lack of responsibility; the process was prolonged.