Monday, September 30, 2019
As it was mentioned that Mossier will use half of the proceeds from the sale to start a new fund to support socially minded entrepreneurship, and Bin will match his investment and continue the company's one-for-one shoe give away policy. The business has recently expanded beyond producing shoes, aware and coffee in Toms product lines- all with the same one for one theme. For every pair of eyeglasses purchased, Toms will help give sight to a person in need. For each bag of coffee beans sold a person will get clean water for a week.Tom's model is perfectly crafted for millennial consumers who wants to feel good about their purchases but needs a clear, simple and tangible means Of understanding the social purpose of the company through point-of-purchase marketing. Hence, it is evident that millennial are Toms' target demographic that are becoming social entrepreneurs in a big way too to make their own impact and for those who are with social missions, this development is a good step for ward to show that social entrepreneurship can do good and do well simultaneously. Document It is a pleasure to be here today and be part of such a distinguished panel. What I'd like to do in the time allotted is to share some thoughts on the influence of technology on learning in high schools. But first let me make clear what I'm talking about. The technology that is shaping our future and our children's is not, as many assume, the computer. These machines have been with us for decades and now, with their advanced multimedia capability, they deserve considerable credit for enhancing learning among people of all ages. But I propose that there is an even greater technology on the rise.I am speaking about the new and emerging forms of interactive communications, such as the Internet, that allow us to capitalize on our greatest learning resource -? the minds of people all over the globe. We are just beginning to experience the impact of this connection of people to people, and can only guess how transforming its effects will be in the coming years. I also contend, however, tha t if we make the right choices now, we can substantially change for the better how we and our children learn, and more important, how the young people of today and generations to come are taught to learn.To succeed at that task requires a concerted and coordinated effort -? a partnership if you will -? among our families, schools, youth organizations, and communities say that because I am mindful that technology itself is never the reason things change. Rather, it is how people choose to apply technology and whether they make wise decisions and address real needs that makes the difference in the long. There is a quote learned and here I quote: The real power of interactive communications is people as the ultimate source of knowledge.It is not the computers, the physical mass of wires, the complex of networks or the vast databases of information. Rather, it is people and their knowledge, relationships, insights, and spirit freely passed from one to another that engender the Ã¢â¬Å"ma gicÃ¢â¬ the Internet is making possible. Today, of this interconnected world that the fundamental question is whether we will share this Ã¢â¬Å"magicÃ¢â¬ with everyone , or only a privileged few. The answer depends on the decisions we aka and the actions we take from this moment on.We must come to understand that access to the Internet needs to be a reality for all our citizens, that the free and unrestricted flow of information and the ready availability of computers for everyone are not simply matters of Ã¢â¬Å"technology. Ã¢â¬ They are, in fact, one of the vital keys that will either open or lock the doors of opportunity for our children and ourselves. It is within our power to determine whether this generation is to experience the rewards of silverberry, a higher quality of fife, and a renewed sense of community that derive from an interactive sharing of information and knowledge.If we make that leap, and ensure that every citizen has access to the Internet and the chan ce to learn the skills to apply these new technologies for personal advancement as well as the common good, America will make a successful transition to the millennium. If we fail, We may leave a legacy smaller than Our own inheritance. We can get Involved with the New Technologies. Make it a priority. I imagine that getting access to networked computers and finding opportunities for practice and training on the Internet may not be easy for many of you.Investigate local community centers, nonprofit organizations, even corporations, who sometimes make space and courses available to the public. Or you might consider buying a recycled computer. Ask around. But don't give up. Because once you have experienced what I'm talking about -? instant access to information you can use and people with shared interests you'll begin to understand the power of this communications revolution. My friends experience demonstrate to me that, the Internet is a rueful tool for invigorating real communities , not just for building virtual ones.Charlotte Web's success in using communications technology to enrich the lives of an entire region, including the undeserved, so that everyone can participate more fully in community life, should inspire other cities and regions to embark on similar ventures. As a bright woman once told us, we need to ensure our children a head start in a difficult and forbidding world. Document The concert was phenomenal. I was an amazed by how Dry. Cure Ragman skills at playing the piano very agile as if he has been playing all his life. He played pieces by List, Suck, Rachmaninoff, and Chopin. Dry. Ragman played with an allegro style of playing in my opinion even when he had to stop playing in the beginning a note cause he sensed one of the microphones wasn't on.The first piece of music he played had an allegro tempo than slow turned and had a allegretto tempo to the piece he played by Franz List called Transcendental Statutes Harmonies du coir (Evening Harmonies). After the first performance Dry. Ragman thanked us for being a good audience. Spring by Josef suck started with a cheerful melody more relaxing as it started with an adagio tempo. Document The concert was phenomenal. I was an amazed by how Dry. Cure Ragman skills at playing the piano very agile as if he has been playing all his life. He played pieces by List, Suck, Rachmaninoff, and Chopin. Dry. Ragman played with an allegro style of playing in my opinion even when he had to stop playing in the beginning a note cause he sensed one of the microphones wasn't on.The first piece of music he played had an allegro tempo than slow turned and had a allegretto tempo to the piece he played by Franz List called Transcendental Statutes Harmonies du coir (Evening Harmonies). After the first performance Dry. Ragman thanked us for being a good audience. Spring by Josef suck started with a cheerful melody more relaxing as it started with an adagio tempo.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Since the beginning of man, there have been ailments that have plagued the human race without concern of who it is inflicting or why they occur. These ailments had to have been combated by some sort of medicine by each culture and their remedies must have been plenty. The plethora of different kinds of medicines and remedies to these ailments among the different kinds of cultures is what we, Team Bloodnut, define as ethnomedicine. Many cultures throughout the world practice some form of ethnomedicine. A field of anthropological research, ethnomedicine seeks to describe the medical systems and practices utilized in different cultures. It examines the origins of what people believe cause illness, as well as examine the ways in which individual cultures treat such maladies. Team Bloodnut wanted to discover the healing beliefs and practices held by Amazonian shamans. Through the use of a life history interview, we sought to understand the traditions held by a people through the experiences of a man working with a former shaman of the tribe. Team Bloodnut formed a hypothesis regarding ethnomedicine in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern world. We hypothesized that the remedies and medicines indigenous cultures use to heal the ill are unorthodox from the stand point of western civilization. Western society will view these remedies as barbarian and a total fallacy. We conducted our research through a life history interview, contacting a filmmaker named Matthew Vincent. Possessing an interest in natural medicines, Vincent spent over half a year living in Peru documenting the experiences of an American ShamanÃ¢â¬â¢s journey into the depths of Amazonian Shamanism. Together, they discovered the origins and methods involved in practicing shamanism in relation to this particular cultural group. Matthew trained under the Ã¢â¬Ëgringo shamanÃ¢â¬â¢ Ron Wheelock, learning the techniques and methods required to effectively heal members of the community in which they lived. In order to effectively film his documentary in a realistic manner, Matthew Vincent needed to integrate himself into the rituals, learning their practices and lifestyles. Researching through a life history interview best utilized our information since it enabled us to capture the personal experience of a man submerging himself into such a specific aspect of a communityÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Our group set out to understand the origins of Amazonian shamanism. We wished to learn about the beliefs of the roots of illnesses as well as the methods used to treat them. Ethnomedicine seeks to understand what illnesses mean within a culture and how to remedy these ailments. According to Vincent, shamans believe people contract illnesses due to a variety of reasons. Culturally, the soul brings balance to the physical body and makes it strong. If presumed damaged or corrupt by devious spirits, souls must undergo ritualistic healing in order to return to a healthy state. Physical illness is thought to be a manifestation of corruption within the soul. In order to correct this corruption, patients go through a mixture of ritualistic songs, plant gnosis, and trances. Shamans utilize trances in order to enter different states of consciousness, allowing them to interact with souls and spirits to perform healing to the soul and bring the spirits back to the sick physical body. One extremely common way to remedy an ailment in Amazonian Shamanism is through the use of ayahuasca. Ayahuasca is an extremely hallucinogenic vine used in brews that are consumed by the Shaman along with the patient so the Shaman can conjure the spirits of the plants used in the brew to foresee any future ailments, cure any immediate ones, and try to prevent any others from manifesting themselves within the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s body and or soul. The ayahuasca brew can take any time from a couple of hours to brew, all the way to up to two days, being cooked three times. Wheelock told Vincent that he has treated people who have visited a psychiatrist for over a year and with one ayahuasca ceremony, the patient feels more rejuvenated and alive than ever before. Ayahuasca can also be used for other uses as well, depending on the ingredients used in the brew. For example, if brewed with shapishico, moonshine, and rainwater, and left to sit together for about nine days, this brew acts as an extremely potent aphrodisiac. Shamans are not only medicine men, but spiritual guides. Shamans can choose from two different paths when immersing themselves in their practices. They can choose to be curandero or a brujo. A curandero is a healer. He is the medicine man that can heal physical and psychological ailments that one might have. He does this through plant gnosis and conjuring the spirits of the plants to help cure the patient. A brujo, on the other hand, focuses on the dark arts of Shamanism, although he can also heal. In a Shamans training, they are visited by spirits and are given magical darts. These magical darts are a brujoÃ¢â¬â¢s weapon of choice when it comes to causing harm or kill another. He can use those towards anybody in the world as long as he has their name, a mental image of the person, a picture, or some sort of memorabilia that depicts who their target is. A curandero will only use these magical darts, usually, to defend himself. When a curandero sends a magical dart to a brujo, itÃ¢â¬â¢s usually with the intention to kill him. After conducting our life history interview, Team Bloodnut came to a conclusion on our hypothesis. We concluded that our hypothesis was correct regarding the differences between western medicines and Amazonian Shamanistic medicines. Western medicines include all of the technologies, modern medicines, and commodities that these indigenous cultures do not have access to; therefore we are much more technologically advanced. These countries are at a disadvantage when it comes to the commodities and technologies but that doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that the quality is any less. These medicine men spend most of their lives learning how to conjure and interact with these spirits of nature so that they can heal in their favor. The way in which they do so shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be frowned upon. If these Shamans have found ways to cure, not just treat these illnesses and ailments, then why havenÃ¢â¬â¢t we, Western Civilization, adopted these methods? Is it the fear or the skepticism of failure? We think that itÃ¢â¬â¢s not so simple. We believe that the reason for these medicines not being accepted into our country is simply so the government wonÃ¢â¬â¢t lose money and control. Wheelock cured a patient that had been visiting a shrink for over a year. In that time how much money did that psychiatrist earn? From that income how much did the government take from the psychiatrist in taxes? This is only for one person, too. Some people spend half of their lives, if not longer visiting some kind of medical practitioner or some form of psychedelic help. There will never be a shortage of sick people, so if they are simply just cured with a couple of ayahuasca ceremonies, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s a pretty significant chunk out of the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ money supply. Not only is it a monetary issue, but also a control issue. If these practices were administered in the United States, people would gain insight and enlightenment to its effects. There is a chemical in ayahuasca that is an intense psychedelic. Dimethyltryptamine is the psychedelic in the ayahuasca that puts the body in the state in which it can be visited by manifesting spirits of the vine. If this psychedelic were to fall into the wrong hands, it could be very harmful to not only to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, but also to the ones who abuse it. Ergo, ethnomedicine is a sensitive subject because it is not only a way to treat people within a certain country or tribe, but it is also the way of life and the way generations upon generations have practiced these remedies. Just because different cultures do things differently, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean that one way is right and the other is wrong. If we, as a species and inhabitants of this Earth, all worked together and shared our practices with each other in the field of medicine, maybe we could find cures, not just treatments to malignant diseases such as cancer. Ayahuasca ceremonies are not just a ritual to heal patients that come to Shamans, but also a lifestyle.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Through our performance we wanted to convey a series of responses from the audience based around the many different feelings you can experience if you were trapped. As the topic didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really allow for the dynamics you can create with humour, we had to enable the audience to mentally separate their emotional response for each scene, in order for them to feel a new emotional experience. We did this by carefully planning the emotional journey we wanted to take them on, by first easing them into feeling scared Ã¢â¬â with the kidnapping scene, and eventually taking them to the paranoia featured in the final scene. We even monitored how the audience responded to the performance by asking them to fill in a questionnaire. In the first set of scenes which revolved around the kidnapping of a little girl, we wanted the audience to be shocked at the fact that this can happen in broad daylight. We therefore set the scene at the end of a school day, with the kidnapper stood in audiences view watching the little girl. This immediately creates suspense within the audience as they know something is going to happen. When the girl slowly follows her and reluctantly holds her hand we wanted the audience to feel shock and helplessness. The second part of this scene was a news report on the kidnapping. This scene was one that we planned to be short, yet grasp the audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and make them realise the seriousness of the situation. Though this scene was simple with its lighting and no sound effects, it was evident that the audience felt concerned. One of the scenes where we intended to emotionally shock the audience was mentioned many times through the questionnaires. It was the scene in which the mother interacts with the audience. For this we intended to use a Brechtian technique of breaking the fourth wall, and Ã¢â¬ËminglingÃ¢â¬â¢ with the audience. We wanted her tone of voice to be very screechy and powerless to shock the audience into really believing that she has lost her child, and the use of close eye contact makes them feel inadequate to help. The audience said that they felt disturbed by closeness of the interaction between Laura (the mother) and themselves. We wanted to continue the Brechtian theme through the use of placards, as they create visual captions that interrupt and summarize the action. We planned to shout at the audience to make them feel uncomfortable. Another change is made when we add some loud and fast drum and bass music, and in corporate flashing lights. We thought that by creating something visually stimulating, we could make the audience feel vulnerable. Using physical theatre, we as a group wanted to physically represent being trapped. Charlotte (who played the girl being kidnapped), and then violently shaking and moving whilst Charlotte attempts, yet fails to escape and reach out. We planned to provoke an emotion of vulnerability and powerlessness but in such a way, that it would shock the audience. The use of physical theatre explicitly allows the audience to actually Ã¢â¬ËseeÃ¢â¬â¢ the scene, and leaves it open to interpretation. Also, the anorexia scene was a mixture of both naturalism Ã¢â¬â with the character of Sophie Ã¢â¬â and surrealism, in that Charlotte is physically representing anorexia. This in its own right should make the audience uncomfortable and nervous. Like Antonin ArtaudÃ¢â¬â¢s theatre of cruelty, we wanted to create a character thatÃ¢â¬â¢s physical representation would shatter the false reality and disturb the audience. That is how we came up with AnnaÃ¢â¬â¢s character. However we firstly wanted the audience to feel sorry for Sophie (the character with anorexia, played by me), so we gave her a monologue in which she gradually became weaker as she was talking. This use of breaking the fourth wall by addressing the audience was intentional, as it would create an intimate connection with the audience. I started off with a confident tone of voice, but gradually got quieter and my body language more timid as I came to the end of my monologue. We thought that the use of monologues would help to engage the audience. The emotional journey we planned to take Sophie on was to give her a range of emotions, so the scene didnÃ¢â¬â¢t become dull and lose audience interest. The contrasts of the shouting at Anna, and then running away crying, were an attempt to take the audience on the same journey I was experiencing. When Sophie collapses at the end, it signifies her physical and mental exhaustion, that again we wanted the audience to feel after watching the performance. The poverty scene was used, in order to show the selfishness within our society, and how we Ã¢â¬Ëturn a blind eyeÃ¢â¬â¢ to what is right in front of us. We wanted to use physical theatre to make the piece quite abstract. In order to do this we again thought a Brectian technique would work well, as we didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want the audience to be spoon fed there emotions. This method of distancing ourselves from the audience was a great way of allowing the audience to question what they are seeing. We wanted them to create there own interpretation of the scene and how they really felt about the issue of poverty. As there were no words, we used music which we felt embodied a lot of feeling. At one point in the music, the rhythm changed. We decided this would be a good point to interact with the audience, so we looked up and stared at them. This was an attempt to single out the audience members, in a way as if to say Ã¢â¬Ëyou can change thisÃ¢â¬â¢. We also repeated the scene again but with masks. We wanted to represent the facelessness of society, and how people are too self involved to see what is going on around them. However, after reading the questionnaires we had asked the audience to fill in, many of them wrote down that they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the scene, especially when with the masks. We maybe could have thought this scene through a little more, and perhaps not have used the masks as it just seemed to confuse the audience, which we did not want to do. In conclusion, the groups plan for a range of audience responses was really dependant on what type of technique we wished to follow. As we have studied many practitioners and their theories; we felt that using a variety of different acting styles and techniques, we could plan and create our desired audience responses. However, we also had to consider the genre and context of the scene, so that we could create the response that we wished the audience to have.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Liberal Art Studies - Essay Example Perhaps in more authoritarian societies using cunning and deceit are necessary to rise out of poverty, but one would hope that in a free society that although using the end to justify immoral means may give a person wealth, it will damage their souls and lead to negative consequences in the end. In this sense, the liberal arts are important because they serve as a guide for moral and ethical behavior and show that oneÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to the state and their fellow man is rewarding in many ways, even economically. This essay will focus on the importance of the liberal arts in modern as well as ancient times through the writings of Kimball, Shorris, Sullivan, Cicero, and Machiavelli. Additionally, the essay will focus on the problems that arise when what is viewed as modern realism is pitted against traditional moral idealism. The liberal arts can certainly have a positive effect on professional life. The liberal arts teach of things like ethics and integrity. Shorris believes that humani ties does function on its own, but does not have its full effect unless it is integrated into professional life (2000). The ancient Greeks also believed it was essential to the welfare of the state that humanities and public life function together. Morals are generally inherent in any professional career. Being a professional carries with it a responsibility to clients, communities, and society in general. This social contract is the basis of professionalism. Therefore it is important that professionals exercise moral judgment in their professional careers. Because a professional is confronted with moral dilemmas, a liberal education is something that is very useful to society in general. A liberal education teaches us about morals and can be seen as something that makes a personÃ¢â¬â¢s professional career more rewarding when it is fully guided by ethical principles. Many people feel that a job is just a job and is a means to an end, but the study of liberal arts tell us that a pe rson and their job canÃ¢â¬â¢t be completely separated. In other words, a person influences the job and the job influences the person. Because of this, it is important to realize that a job, or making money, can often impose moral decisions upon the professional. Also, a person who is very immoral and unethical can use their job as a means to lie, cheat, and steal from others. Sullivan believes that, at its best, a profession can provide an important benefit to the individual as well as to society as a whole. However, at its worst, a profession can strip a person of their ethics and their humanity (2004). Using this definition he illustrates that professionalism is headed down a dangerous road as more and more people feel that economic ambition is the only thing that matters and things like loyalty and social responsibility are being thrown by the wayside. Sullivan also believes that society is in danger of simply training people instead of educating them and explains that this cou ld lead to people only using one small part of their brain. Often certain professionals are only focused on the technical aspect of their career and do not regard anything else as important. This type of person may be doing their job but they are not engaged in examining their lives and therefore it is difficult for them to achieve a truly fulfilled working life. The study of liberal arts is something that is capable of making a personÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday life better because it can take a person out of their
Thursday, September 26, 2019
What are the pronciples that need to underpin the planning and devlivery of Collective worship in a Catholic School - Essay Example But recently these concepts had been redefined under the 1988 Education Reform Act (ERA), which provided the legal framework behind the collective worship principle in schools in Great Britain today. This law is responsible for most of the reforms that took place in British schools in the past decades. In the context of collective worship, the ERA sought to modify the 1944 statute by mandating that collective worship is a Ã¢â¬Å"broadly Christian character if it reflects the broad traditions of Christian belief without being distinctive of any particular Christian denomination.Ã¢â¬ (Edge 2002, p. 305) According to the DFE religious education in schools should seek: to develop pupilÃ¢â¬â¢s knowledge, understanding and awareness of Christianity, as the predominant religion in Great Britain, and the other principal religions represented in the country; to encourage respect for those holding different beliefs; and to help pupilsÃ¢â¬â¢ spiritual, moral, social and cultural developm ent. (cited in Wright and Brandom 2000, p. 15) And collective worship is an integral part of this initiative as it is believed that it will be able to achieve for students an understanding of how to live in the modern society. In addition, collective worship is seen as a tool that is available to teachers to complement educational purposes. Wright and Brandom summed up six key aims of collective worship in school: The first is a moral one because collective worship analyses contemporary issues affecting young people and presents varying responses to them; the second seeks to help students identify and think about themselves, of the mysterious universe in which their lives are set and of the strangeness of modern living; the third is about helping student develop their values further; the fourth focuses and celebrates the shared values manifested by respective school communities; the fifth pertains to the encouragement of community spirit, interaction and relationship
An outline marketing plan for the next year for Atlantic Quench302 - Essay Example marketing plan for the company has been developed based on achieving a differentiation competitive advantage by launching a new product in new markets. Although the competitive nature of the juice and nectar segment makes the selected process a risky affair but considering the position of other big brands in the market Atlantic Quench have to act fast and in a steady manner. The marketing plan for Atlantic Quench has the primary objective of getting a jump start by selling 3340000 units of their new product in the target markets i.e. UK, As Atlantic Quench have already created an alliance with Gerber their distribution channel is supported. Moreover, the variety in the product base and the health conscious products of Atlantic Quench will attract consumers towards them. The brand awareness process of Atlantic Quench will be based on their promotional activities with the help of television, leaflet distribution and online advertisements. Also creating alliances and mergers with local distribution channels will help the company to get in direct touch with their consumer base and understand their needs and requirements. It can be observed that the marketing planning process of Atlantic Quench has been designed in a manner so that all the functional aspects are inter-connected and aligned with the overall aim of the business plan. Following the implications of the marketing plan, the budget has been developed which fulfils the necessity of generating a jumpstart for the new product in the target market. The budget development process will also be used for controlling and monitoring the entire marketing planning process by focusing on performance of individual variables of the budget. Global market forces like changing customerÃ¢â¬â¢s preference, consolidation and the impact of increased government regulation in business strategy has drives out an incessant evolution in beverage and food industry (Brodie and Danaher, 2000). Non alcoholic beverage like, fruit juice, tea,
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The accidental investment and Mans search for meaning compared - Essay Example These themes revolve around ethics, morality, values and motivation. Ethics is the differentiation of good and bad and so is morality. Morality however has an aspect that revolves around the background the individual or people have been brought up in and the morals that were instilled in such individuals. It is therefore not a wonder then that in the first book which solely deals with bankers, the author describes in detail how some bankers shamelessly and in most cases surreptitiously swindle their clients finances by lying about investments and especially those made through the internet. The author who was also in that business but later due to the lack of ethics and morality of the colleagues left explains how those bankers are self-centered thinking only about their future and not of those clients. This may be termed as a lack of morality, self-value and even ethics. The theme of motivation in this book becomes evident where it the motivations of the bankers to make ends meet and avoid having a poor future that make them swindle and lie to clients about investments. The same can be said about the second book whose concept of lack of morality, values and ethics revolves around the Nazi soldiers whose lack of the above mentioned themes led to them treating the Jews inhumanely and subjecting them to unbearable torture. It is this torture that made the author of the book decide to introduce a motivator through counseling the rest of the prisoners to keep their hopes and dreams alive and avoid them losing touch and giving up in life despite them being in the concentration camp. In the first book about investment, the author gives first-hand experience of what really goes on in the investment business that the rest of the population do not know are simply too ignorant to understand. The ethics and morality by bankers in the investment business has simply evolved from being that based on truth and deep care for the client to that of making money and generating rev enue regardless of how they will do it. Their values are not in customer satisfaction or benefit like it used to be the case in other previous decades, they simply think about themselves and their future which is uncertain and hence will fleece the innocent investors of their money without flinching an eye. Their motivation relies on internet and it superb working to connect many investors and at the same time remain faceless hence avoiding feelings of guilt in the end. The other book Ã¢â¬Å"ManÃ¢â¬â¢s search of meaningÃ¢â¬ is simply a personal experience about the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s time spent in NaziÃ¢â¬â¢s concentration camp, the hardships they faced, the inhumane treatment, the lack of morals and values by the guards running the camps and in the end the motivation behind survival in the camps and not giving up hope in spite of all the mistreatment. The theme of the first part of the book is about ethics and morality and how the guards in the concentration camp just like the bankers in the above book think about only themselves and hence step down harder on the rest of the people to achieve their goals and objectives at the end of the day. The motivation in the second part where logo therapy is employed by the author in a bid to keep alive and survive all that is interconnected with the motivation behind the bankerÃ¢â¬â¢s use of internet to benefit themselves and feel less guilt or sad emotions for what they are doing. 2 How do the themes connect with my own ethics, values, interests and motivators? Ethics enable a person differentiate between the good and the bad and therefore make one avoid or correct the things that are deemed bad by the individual or society and concentrate on the good or work towards the good. The
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
How black and white scholars have interpreted the 200th Anniversary of the Compromise of 1850 - Essay Example The North expressed its resistance to the law and its resistance against the law gave power to the South. The North was against the law because it was becoming revolutionized by education and urbanization that was facilitated by industrialization. Such resistance sparked the Civil War that led to the end of slavery1. The Compromise of 1850 experienced heated debates over the course of action against runaway slaves and the leadership of the free states and the states under slavery. Senator Calhoun proposed the election of two presidents; one for the enslaved states and the other for the free states. Senator Clay and Webster were against the extension of slavery. The Fugitive Slave Law sparked many ideas about the future of the states. The 1850s was characterized by tensional reactions to the state of slavery. The Southerners wanted unification of all territories as a common property of all states. The Northerners wanted industrialization and development which was the reason for their support for the election of President Lincoln. The debates continued until the Civil War which was followed by President Abraham Lincoln who brought the reunion of the states3. The Compromise of 1850 allowed the entry of California being a free state into the union while the other two territories of New Mexico and Utah had the option of choosing their slavery status. Thereafter the Kansas- Nebraska Act reignited the controversies surrounding slavery. In a bid to gain support of the South, a Democrat senator, Stephen Douglas revoked restriction on slavery that was agreed upon in the Missouri Compromise. The Northerners reacted arguing that slave power was taking advantage of free labor to monopolize all the territories. The arguments led to the splitting and collapsing of many parties including the Whig Party. The Dread Scott ruling of the 1857 further weakened fight against slavery by indicating that the Congress
Monday, September 23, 2019
Ratio Analysis - Essay Example Financial statement analysis consists of the application of analytical tools and techniques to the data in financial statements in order to derive from them measurements and relationships that are significant and useful for decision making (ICFAI Center for Management Research ICMR). The process of financial analysis can be described in various ways, depending on the objectives to be obtained. Financial analysis can be used as a preliminary screening tool of future financial conditions and results. It may be used as a forecasting tool of future financial conditions and results. It may be used as a process of evaluation and diagnosis of managerial, operating, or other problem areas. Above all, financial analysis reduces reliance on intuition, guesses and thus narrows the areas of uncertainty that is present in all decision making processes. Financial analysis does not lessen the need for judgment but rather establishes a sound and systematic basis for its rational application. In the analysis of financial statements, the analyst has a variety of tools available from which he can choose those best suited to his specific purpose. The following are the important tools of analysis. Ratios are well known and the most widely used tools of financial analysis. ... The analysis of ratios can disclose relationships as well as bases of comparison that reveal conditions and trends that cannot be detected by going through the individual components of the ratio. The usefulness of ratios is ultimately dependant on their intelligent and skillful interpretation. Ratios are used by different people for various purposes. As ratio analysis mainly helps in valuing the firm in quantitative terms, two groups of people are interested in the valuation of the firm and they are creditors and shareholders (Blackwell publishing). Creditors are again divided into short-term creditors and long-term creditors. Short-term creditors hold obligations that will soon mature and they are concerned with the firm's ability to pay its bills promptly. In the short run, the amount of liquid assets determines the ability clear off current liabilities. These persons are interested in liquidity. Long-term creditors hold bonds or mortgages against the firm and are interested in current payments of interest and eventual repayment of principal. The firm must be sufficiently liquid in the short-term and have adequate profits for the long-term. These persons examine both the liquidity and profitability of the firm (ICFAI Center for Management Research ICMR). Ratio Analysis - A strategic tool Insight into the financial situation of a company will quickly place its condition in perspective. The critical areas in any profit or non-profit organization can be summed up as follows: Scanning and using funds Planning for securing and using funds Controlling expenditure Reporting all transactions and results to appropriate parties Facts can be gathered and tentative conclusions can be
Sunday, September 22, 2019
World Politics The War Against Terrorism Essay Introduction The contemporary world of politics is heading with a fear of terrorism that stood as a hindrance for undertaking any developmental or prosperous strategies that helps to stabilize a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s economy or social status.Ã In fact, the world economy is shrinking with these negative forces causing catastrophes and striking innocent people. There is a deep impact on social justice, political chaos,Ã infrastructure of public property and loss of millions of dollars at the expense of terrorist networks and pre-conspired evil schemes. Some of the questions that arise in the minds of civilians are : why does terrorists attack in public places ? what do they need?Ã where from the hour of help is descending for needy? which is that religion and who is that God who prostrates terrorism? From the year 2001, beginning from U.S., terrorists have been continuously attacking time and again, some of the major cities across the worldÃ for various reasons best known to terrorist networks causing aggravation to millions of middle class and poor people. There were bombings in trains, buses, cabs and public pavements causing loss of lives for which no reason is attached hitherto. The continuance of such sorry state of affairs is truly unpardonable which declares that these criminal mindsets have to be brought to justice under international court of law to declare that such international violations of peace, law and order deserve a greater punishment as it isÃ a serious violation of human rights and no crime is above the law. In every part of the world, there are internal extreme forces which in order to cause political confusionÃ and to compel the government to meet the demands, step on to terrorize people and target these innocent civilians. Whether external or internal, the motives of terrorists are all the same to achieve anythingÃ i.e. targeting civilians which is immoral, unethical and undemocratic. What is terror? The definition of terror given by web world is panic: an overwhelming feeling of fear and anxiety a person who inspires fear or dead ; Ã¢â¬Å" he was the terror of the neighborhoodÃ¢â¬ a very troublesome child. Although there are no standard definitions recorded for terror or terrorism, each nation has been giving definitions in its own terms and point of views. For instance American definition of terrorism is laid in Title 22 of the U.S. code as Ã¢â¬Å"premeditated, politically motivated violenceÃ¢â¬ . A well known Iranian scholar Tashkiri has defined terrorism as Ã¢â¬Å"Terrorism is an act carried out to achieve an inhuman and corrupt objective and involving threat to security of any kind, and in violation of the rights acknowledged by religion and mankind.Ã¢â¬ Contradictorily, Ã¢â¬Å"God commands justice and doing good and giving to relatives. And He forbids indecency and doing wrong and tyranny. He warns you so that hopefully you will pay heed.Ã¢â¬ (Quran, 16:90) The holy book of Islam religion QurÃ¢â¬â¢an condemns terrorism as a plan to cast evil on others. In fact it aims to bring peace and security to the entire world which gives quite an evidence that terrorism is politically motivated and not a religious movement. (Yahya, Harun). If under the shadow of religion, such evils are taking place, it invites punishments of any sort as terrorists include fascists, communists, racists or radical political groups. Ã¢â¬Å"While countries like America often became the target of attacks by racist and marginal terrorist groups, the European countries have been center stage for violent acts carried out by terrorist groups. The nature of terrorism changes with changing world conditions and increases its impact and power with the new means made possible by developing technology. In particular, mass communication tools such as the Internet extend the scope and influence of the terrorist activities considerablyÃ¢â¬ . (Yahya, Harun) War against terror ( our world today) The war against terror for five years, has left behind achievements and made the situation lachrymoseÃ which will be overlooked with a view of international law of justice for human rights.Ã The motive of war on terror was in right direction, true motives at the expense to strike the enemy. Every part of the world, witnessed insecurity, chaos and fear and still continue to face problems of terror of bombings. Ã Ã The ideologies of extremists are all radical based agendas and most of these terrorists are western based Islam radicals who work on finances funded by major networks which is in turn supported by Islam countries. Key To World Peace World leaders summit in 2005, pledged all terrorists activities will be made weaker through the powerful Nuclear Terrorism Convention and encouraged the participation of all States to cooperate and act on Ã¢â¬Å"timely and decisive mannerÃ¢â¬ on war crimes. Leaders of Jordan, Republic of Moldova, Indonesia, Kyrgzstan, Paraguay, UAE, Bahrain and foreign ministers of several other countries have opined on global terrorism and the remedies to prevent future war crimes. The slogan of Ã¢â¬Å"larger freedomÃ¢â¬ and strengthening the world body United Nations to speed up the activities of Agenda with appropriate relevance, effictiveness on hot issues that are threatening the peace of world. UN Secretary General stated that expansion of Security Council is essential in terms ofÃ United Nations transparency which is explained as Ã¢â¬Å"continuing our efforts to achieve a decision to this end and request the General Assembly to review progress on reform by the end of 2005Ã¢â¬ .Ã Several world leaders stated [Poland, Panama] that an international cooperation, identification of root causes for war crimes. inter exchange of views and empowerment of military power are some of the effective measures to eradicate violent radical terrorists. Secretary General stated that . Ã Ã¢â¬Å"We have allowed posturing to get in the way of resultsÃ¢â¬ , he said in his opening address to the Summit. Ã Ã¢â¬Å"This is inexcusable. Ã Weapons of mass destruction pose a grave danger to us all we must pick up the pieces in order to renew negotiations on this vital issue.Ã¢â¬ What are the gateways to eradicate terrorism? An order of democracy around the world, where human rights are protected counting theÃ life of every individual as valuable and a right to live with freedom and not by fear. Undertake poverty, hunger, epidemics as a hot issues and launch a long-term programme for bringing health awareness among downtrodden in those countries where an act of help is required. Rehabilitation centers to motivate on cultural, social and ethical status of people of all racists irrespective of caste, creed or religion.Ã Protection of human rights on democratic principles as a priority and work on the principle alone and lay a foundation for strong democratic society,Ã at least for future generations and a vivid picture and effects ofÃ negative forces. African Development Bank, WTO negotiations on removal of subsidies and find solutions for development of Millennium Goals apart from protecting workers rights and human rights. The summit also discussed that the terrorist networks continue to lay plots and have been attacking Europe, Africa, Middle East, Central Asia and Far East after 9/11/2001, and future plots to crash passenger airlines. Conclusively, the world is divided geographically into two parts. Primary being western countries [US, Europe, Australia] and the secondary being Muslim countries [Iran, Iraq, UAE, Saudi Arabia etc.,] An internal terrorist law can be promulgated which slashes activities within a particular nation i.e. supply of arms, ammunitions, weapons or bio-terrorism by the witness of court of law by tightening the civilian life style through the medium of democratic law and order. This measure also makes terrorists to pass through difficult stages to make the very entrance into other nation with arms by air, road or water. Conclusion According to the opinions of several political leaders around the world, present view is considered as a fact that, certainly war is not a solution for terrorism. As proved by civil war in Iraq, there was only financial loss leaving a sad state of affairs that are now are recorded as a part of history in terrorism. Contradictorily, the hour and emergency of need after post 9/11 attacks were to find and destroy WMD without which, the situation would have been more infuriating and most probably, terrorists would target millions of civilians around the world, if the networks have not been crashed.Ã Therefore, there are views that military solution to some extent is appropriate to bring restore law and order. However in long-term perspective laying a strong foundation through the medium of legal enforcements, public awareness, securitisation of major cities and international cooperation are some of the effective measuresÃ to prevent terrorist attacks. No other country, other than U.S could have performed a better coalition operation in spite of several military losses and economic losses, it continued its aggressive efforts to weaken prominent networks of terrorists and all the sources of activities and finances. The work and efforts of U.S is praiseworthy and it did leave a deep impact on the nation itself that U.S will be alert on every ground for the future times. Solutions to terrorism A terrorist always leaves a message through an attack to the targeted. An analysis of solution certainly is the source of a problem.Ã It is an uphill task to caution nations against attacks every now and then.Ã A long-term strategical plan keeping in view the international court of law and justice, human rights and United Nations have to be laid against prevention of barbaric acts of radicals. References Ã http://www.islamdenouncesterrorism.com/terrorism1.htm What is terrorism Accessed 20 December, 2006 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.crf-usa.org/terror/What_Is_Terrorism_rev.htm Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã General Assembly Accessed 20 December, 2006 World Leaders pledge wide-range steps on poverty, terrorism, human rights, UN Reform as 2005 summit concludes in New York. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2005/ga10385.doc.htm (4)The solution to the terrorism problem, Terrorists: its what the big army calls the Ã Ã Ã Ã little army. Accessed 20 December, 2006 http://www.ram.org/ramblings/philosophy/terrorism.html Books (5) Wohlstetter, Albert J (1958) The Delicate Balance of Terror Accessed 20 December, 2006
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Factors Contributing To The Development Of Depression Social Work Essay Current research by Social Care Institute for Excellence, (SCIE), suggests that one person in six will become depressed at some point in their lives, and, at any one time, one in twenty adults will be experiencing depression. I will discuss the definition of depression and its interpretation along with the biomedical model, interpersonal, psychological and institutional perspectives. Then discuss the social, economic, environmental and political factors that contribute to the developing of depression and their relation to sociological and psychological theory with particular relevance to black and minority ethnic (BME) groups. In England and Wales the Mental Health Act 1983 defines mental disorder as: mental illness, psychopathic disorder and any other disability of mind. There is a dual role of legislation: providing for care while at the same time controlling people who are deemed to be experiencing mental disorder to the extent that they are at a risk to the public or themselves. World Health Organization WHO (2001), marks depression as when Capacity for enjoyment, interest, and concentration is reduced, and marked tiredness after even minimum effort is common. Sleep is usually disturbed and appetite diminished. Self-esteem and self-confidence are almost always reduced and, even in the mild form, some ideas of guilt or worthlessness are often present. Mental health is a contested concept which can be viewed from different medical, psychological and social perspectives, which lead to diverse views on what mental health is. Depression is a mental illness and, can affect anyone at different points in their lives, from every background and occupation. Categorizing populations as experiencing depression, involves making judgments by the use of scales of mental health and these judgments determine cut-off points on a continuum of mental health or illness and are socially constructed. A rating scale commonly used to measure the mental health of populations is the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). A study by Singleton et al., (2001) found that 76 per cent of the participants, who reported symptoms of mental distress, did not receive any treatment from a health professional for their problems. Sainsbury (2002) study refers to a culture of fear within the BME populace. Causation is affected by the practitioners who diagnose and treat depression and the public perception of depression however there are many perspectives. Biomedical model focus on biological aspects of depression and look for symptoms that relate to diagnostic categories of mental disorder with a view that a sick body can be restored to health. Interpersonal perspectives on depression focus on individual people, experiencing mental distress, together with family and friends, psychologists and counselors also taking account of the views and experiences of service users and survivors. One such perspective is to see madness as a difference rather than an illness, like the social model of disability Oliver (2002). Peoples actions can be open to different interpretations which are influenced by the perspectives of those making the interpretation. However there are commonsense perspectives of depression including personal experience with the people in closest contact, a relative or friend, may form opinions of the likely causes of the distress. Their opinions may include aspects of the persons personality and recognize the impact of externa l stressors such as bereavement, debt or work demands. Overall they are more likely to emphasize the impact of social, rather than biological or psychological, factors. Psychological perspectives on depression explores unconscious thinking, possible past traumas and focuses on helping service users to realize their potential and focus on social support and psychological interventions. This has created the development of psychotherapeutic treatments or talking therapies, such as cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT) has become the psychological treatment of choice in many NHS-funded services. Advantages of CBT include having some support, someone to talk to and developing coping strategies. Disadvantages of CBT include The focus being on here and now, when the person might want to spend more time discussing past issues. CBT is a relatively effective way of helping someone deal with their distress that puts the client back in control of their life. Despite the evidence that has been collected to support the use of different psychological treatments, their effectiveness continues to be debated and funding is mainly offered in private practice or withi n institutions. (McLeod, 2000; Holmes, 2002) By contrast, the prescription route is a commonly referred to and accepted path with no self-criticism or self-awareness required. Institutional perspectives or psychiatric perspectives on depression hold biological and genetic theories of causation for depression, and prescribe biological and physical treatments. Psychiatric perspectives emphasize the diagnosis of symptoms of depression in order to place people into categories of illness. The influence of GPs and psychiatrists is powerful in determining what is and what is not considered to be a mental health problem. Psychiatrists have powers to detain patients for treatment against their will. Psychiatry, through its association with medicine, tends to take precedence over psychological and social perspectives. The bio-psychosocial model introduced by Engel (1980) acknowledges the interactions between the persons biology, their psychological makeup and their social situation as important in understanding their mental distress. It encourages a more holistic approach to treatment. However, it has not provided the hoped-for basis of an accepted multidisciplinary approach. The Social support perspectives believes social factors and the persons experiences cause depression and social support restores the mentally distressed person to wellbeing and social functioning. However it is also viewed as an addition to psychiatric treatment, where the service user is established on their medication, and social issues investigated. Puttnam cited in Gross (2005) refers to social capital as a supportive social atmosphere and discusses bridging and bonding ties and the absence of these can lead to social isolation. Cockerham (2007) makes the connection where depression and illness are most likely among those with little or no social capital. There is also a tendency for the individual to, once diagnosed, to play the sick role, Rosenhan (1975) refers to the stickiness of labels and Goffman (1961) refers to looping and deviancy amplification that is associated with stigmatization and labeling of individuals. However our social standing is not the only element that contributes to our sense of well being. The environment that we live and are brought up in greatly influence our health Ross (2000) cited in Cockerham (2007) compares advantaged and disadvantaged neighborhoods finding that higher levels of depression occur in the latter with individuals suffering psychologically because of their environment although there were links to their individualism female sex, younger age, ethnicity, low education, low income, unemployment, unmarried with the remainder from living in a poor neighbourhood. The daily stressors of living with crime, disorder and danger all link with symptoms of depression. Those living in clean and safe neighbourhoods showed low levels of depression. Distressing neighborhoods produce distress beyond that from individual disadvantage with poverty and single mother households the strongest predictor of depression. However the lack of choice and powerlessness of poverty make the emotional consequences of living in a bad neighbourhood worse. Poverty can lead to poorer mental health where access to employment and welfare benefits, can be seen as health-promoting activities. For most nations, spending on mental health promotion is low Appleby, (2004), and the resources put into mental health promotion are minuscule compared with those used for treating ill health. Schulz et al. (2000) cited in Cockerham (2007) found high psychological distress highest amongst blacks and whites living in high poverty areas, slum living conditions. Wilson and Pickett (2006) cited in Cockerham (2007) stated that stress , poor social networks , low self esteem , depression , anxiety, insecurity and loss of a sense of control are reduced and social cohesion in enhanced when income levels are more equal- however equalizing income is inherently political. Sir Donald Achesons Independent Inquiry into Inequalities in Health Report (1998) recommendations will require policy changes to occur with reference to changes in building design, planning and access to health care treatments, although most research data on interventions tend to be tested on white, middle aged well educated men and women therefore the efficacy with black or mixed ethnic BME is not proven. The report also links depression and anxiety with obesity and inactivity and encourages physical exercise as obesity and inactivity is increasing in lower socio economic classes. The media and the NIMBY phenomenon exemplifies the exclusion that often accompanies a diagnosis of depression. This raises issues of complex ethical and political issues along with human and civil rights. According to Blaxter (2004) health, disease and illness are social constructs; they are categories which have been named, and defined, by human beings. Bowers (1998) argues that diagnostic classification systems are culturally influenced, but involve: careful, detailed observation, publication and peer review. Psychiatric diagnoses are based on social judgments of behaviour and experiences. These judgments can be socially and culturally influenced. For example, you will automatically get well by travelling to a country where your beliefs are widely shared. This obviously does not happen with heart disease. Problems of subjectivity and unrecognized cultural assumptions may complicate the process of diagnosis. Neither minds nor bodies develop illnesses. Only people do (Kendall 2001). Recognition that both physical and mental factors are involved in mental distress could mean that a diagnosis of depression would be no more stigmatizing than having a heart condition. Foucault cited in Giddens (2006) was a post-structuralist theorist who believed that peoples views on depression are the results of discourse that exists to define and subjugate people in society. He also, through the process of social archaeology, examines how the issues of mental health existed in the past and how they are a modern conception of normal and deviant activity , defining them as a construct built on power in society and how that power operates , this therefore links in to social constructionist theory. Social constructionism is the belief that our understanding of depression as a reality, overlooks the processes through which the reality is constructed. Our current sociological thinking is one of a historic white male centred Eurocentric model with women historically viewed as hormonal creatures and this gender difference is still prevalent to day in the way we use language with gender differences in the way society defines these roles. Brown and Harris (1974) model of depression drew links with unhappy life events that can lead to depression when mixed with his four vulnerability factors which he identified as ; 3 or more children under 14, loss of mother before 11, lack of employment, lack of intimate confiding relationships. He established that these factors plus an unhappy life event led to 83% women became depressed with working class women more likely to become depressed. Kasen et al (2010) have conducted a study supporting the effects of enduring earlier stress both in childhood , poor health status and a more rapid deterioration in health and the effects this has on major depressive disorder on women in old age and the need to develop resources to counteract stress exposures in younger generations of women. These factors need to be considered in the understanding not only from a feminist perspective but also from a black perspective as black women are multiply disadvantaged, hooks cited in Giddens (2005). Immigration has played a major part in the creation of culturally diverse communities in UK society. The majority of the UK population in the National Census (2001) census was white (92 per cent). The remaining 7.9 per cent were from different minority ethnic groups. Karlsen et al. (2002) states that ethnic groups experience significant racism, unfair discrimination and social exclusion. This needs to be considered when understanding their mental health experiences. Social inequalities in education, employment and health disproportionately affect members of minority ethnic groups. This all leads to increased mental distress. Also black males lives are much harder as they have to live to a set of unconscious rules written in Westernised psychiatry which leads to their current diagnosis. People from minority ethnic groups find that mental health services are not sympathetic to their particular needs. A report from the Sainsbury Centre (2002) concluded, black people are disproportionate ly disadvantaged and their experiences of mental health services are characterised by fear and conflict. Delivering Race Equality was launched in January 2005 and requires health authorities, and NHS trusts to ensure equality of services. The Department of Health has set action goals for the mental health care of minority ethnic communities and service users; these include, reduction in fear and seclusion in mental health services. Race is a contested concept with the difference between race, having its origins in 18th and 19th century colonial assumptions about the differences between white and non-white people. The concept of race is socially constructed and is now embedded in how we identify, understand and think about people. Ethnicity is an alternative concept to race that is more acceptable to groups in society . Ethnicity refers to a sense of identity that is based on shared cultural, religious and traditional factors. Ethnic identities are always changing and evolving. Approaches to cross cultural psychiatry according to Pilgrim (2005) are either orthodox or skeptical. Orthodox definitions of depression state that culture shapes the expression and prevalence of mental disorder. Cultural sensitivity enables GPs to read symptoms and translate them into an orthodox, western diagnosis. A sceptical reading questions the validity of applying diagnostic labels from Western culture to other cultures. Cultural d ifferences lead to people explaining and experiencing depression in different ways. Imposing western diagnostic categories leads to misinterpreting the persons mental distress. It is important to be cautious in making cross-cultural comparisons in diagnosing with different illnesses being stigmatized in different cultures, and so expressed differently. Beck cited in Giddens (2005) felt that depressed peoples thinking is dominated by a triad of negative schema of, ineptness, self-blame and negative evaluation although this doesnt take into account any social factors that have impacted on the individual. Freud cited in Gross (2005) thought that people were victims of their feelings. That the psycho-analytical theory with fixation in psycho sexual stages and repressed desires feelings are what causes mental illness as the ego is unable to exert control over our feelings and this inability to express may cause anxiety and depression. He took this further with enforcing the belief of intra psychic loss, loss of sense of self, esteem, loss of job or the loss of a major sustaining relationship. Hayes (1998) links Bowlbys functionalist perspective in his attachment theory being the loss of significant carer and lack of maternal attachment had far reaching effects. Skinner cited in Gross (2005), believed in radical behaviourism and that lea rning is conditioned and emphasized the role of environmental factors. Seligman (1974) takes a humanistic approach purporting that learned helplessness is a cognitive psychological explanation of depression, where there is learned helplessness and passivity, people become dependant and unable to make decisions for themselves. Oakley (2005) remarks on the tendency for women to specialize in mental illness and that many more women in Westernized society are classified as having neurotic disorders and women dominate in psychosomatic disorders. A correlation exists in the study of mental illness being higher in men living alone and higher in married women however women are also suffers of post partum depression which is viewed by society through the biomedical viewpoint. Oakley (2005) places this within the self perception and ideals within a male patriarchal culture where women have been, historically, subject to social, economic and psychological discrimination, as have black people. However we are all damaged in some extent, this being a state of humanity; however, connectedness is not possible without the qualities of vulnerability, weakness, helplessness and dependency. A paradox exists in that all these qualities are seen as feminine, and are, not only negatively described, but are also associated with depression. This also links to learned helplessness as a psycho social explanation that women are gendered and stereotyped into this through socialization Weissman et al (1982). Calhoun et al (1974) established data that indicated a trend for females to hold themselves more responsible for unhappy moods than males. There are a myriad ways of thinking, behaving and experiencing the world through a combination of care and control using medical, psychological, and social support with interventions done to reduce negative factors such as poverty , unemployment racism etc, and promote social inclusion. Research will play a large part as new factors are established as demonstrated in the recently publicized link between teenagers sleep patterns and depression Gangwisch et al. (2008) Word Count 2747
Friday, September 20, 2019
The Definition of Success Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã What is success? Is it the process of doing a task and receiving a positive result acceptable amongst the community, or is it simply achieving ones own personal goals? Success to me can mean many things. Although I am successful in school, that does not necessarily mean I will lead a successful life. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã According to The American Heritage Dictionary success is, "the achievement of something desired, planned, or attempted." Even over the course of history, the meaning of the word has not really changed. In the Webster's Dictionary from 1828, success was stated as, "the favorable or prosperous termination of anything attempted; a termination which answers the purpose intended; properly in a good sense, but often in a bad sense." Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The word success itself has an interesting background. First used in 1537, the word was derived from Latin. Succeed entered English in the 15th century from Old French succeder, which itself came from Latin succedere. That word is a compound verb formed from sub- "under" in the sense of "next under" or "after," and cedere "go." The meaning of "getting near to something" changed in Latin to "doing well, prospering," hence the meaning behind success. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Success to me is setting personal goals, and following through with them. Whether you achieve your desired result or not, you have succeeded just by trying. "It is not the critic who counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbled, or whe...
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Which Philosophy Best Suits You? Upon entering the field of education, I am faced with many questions. Will the students like me? Will I have a large class? Will I be a good teacher? A few of the questions that definitely need to be answered before I enter the classroom, are what methods should I use to teach? What aspects of which methods will work best for me? What philosophy best exemplifies the way I want to bestow the learning process to my students? In my quest to become an elementary teacher I shall use a variety of aspects from past philosophers of education. As long as each child is learning, I feel that I am fulfilling my goal, and a difference is being made, I am on my way to a successful classroom. Of all the philosophies that I have been taught and researched in my Education classes, I feel that I will probably use Essentialism, the most dominant and widely accepted philosophy currently in classrooms today. For example, I think that after a lesson is taught each student should have to take a test to evaluate how well they have understood the information, and hopefully, be able to demonstrate to me how well I have taught the information. Mastery of the material should be practiced in the classroom. The student may not go any further in a lesson until the proposed idea has been taught and mastered. My belief in Perennialism, the second philosophy of my choice, is not as strong as Essentialism, although I feel that I will use a few aspects, such as discussion in the classroom and writing of essays. I feel students are more open and opinionated when asked questions and may feel comfortable knowing that they can ask questions and discuss their answers freely. Two key points of this philosophy I find myself using even now within the classes I attend are time on task and precision. Dividing my time appropriately and allowing enough time to complete work, as well as goal of completion. Also setting a schedule so I know when I need to attend to certain tasks. The same idea will expectantly reflect on my students as they see that I set dates as a guideline to manage my time appropriately, as well as their classroom time.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Nature of Love Explored in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Symposium In classical Greek literature the subject of love is commonly a prominent theme. However, throughout these varied texts the subject of Love becomes a multi-faceted being. From this common occurrence in literature we can assume that this subject had a large impact on day-to-day life. One text that explores the many faces of love in everyday life is PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Symposium. In this text we hear a number of views on the subject of love and what the true nature of love is. This essay will focus on a speech by Pausanius. PausaniusÃ¢â¬â¢s speech concentrates on the goddess Aphrodite. In particular he looks at her two forms, as a promoter of Ã¢â¬Å"Celestial LoveÃ¢â¬ as well as Ã¢â¬Å"Common Love.Ã¢â¬ This idea of Ã¢â¬Å"Common LoveÃ¢â¬ can be seen in a real life context in the tragedy Ã¢â¬Å"HippolytusÃ¢â¬ by Euripides. This brings the philosophical views made by Pausanius into a real-life context. The speech by Pausanius in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Symposium divides the goddess Aphrodite into two beings, each responsible for a different aspect of love. To prove the existence of her double life he cites her creation. There are two versions of the birth of Aphrodite, one coming from HesiodÃ¢â¬â¢s work, Theogony, where she is borne out of UranusÃ¢â¬â¢ castrated genitals as they splash into the sea; the other is from HomerÃ¢â¬â¢s work, the Illiad, where she is said to be the daughter of Zeus and Dione. (Notes on PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Symposium 180e) From these two vastly different creations she takes on two vastly different forms. Pausanius describes one of her forms as Ã¢â¬Å"CelestialÃ¢â¬ love. This type of love springs out of the Aphrodite created from UranusÃ¢â¬â¢ genitals. This form is Ã¢â¬Å"wholly maleÃ¢â¬ (Symposium 180c) which inspires men to be a... ... love described by Pausanias as Ã¢â¬Å"CommonÃ¢â¬ love. Throughout the play love is used by Euripides as a key plot factor and in many ways sets the outcome of the play. This love was definitely based on a physical attraction between a male and a female, thus making it Ã¢â¬Å"CommonÃ¢â¬ love. The fact that Euripides uses Ã¢â¬Å"CommonÃ¢â¬ love lends credibility to PausaniasÃ¢â¬â¢ philosophical ideas. The appearance of this idea suggests that it had realistic roots. . The events that took place in the play, such as the relationship between Phaedra and Hippolytus, must have been realistic so a Greek audience would believe the story. Even though Hippolytus is a fictional play the events that take place must have their roots in realistic events. This allows us to believe that PausaniasÃ¢â¬â¢ philosophical ideal was in fact a real life issue that Athenians dealt with in day-to-day life.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, written by Mark Twain, takes place during the antebellum era, and revolves around a young boy, named Huck. The antebellum era was the years right before the Civil War, so Huck was living in a dark and murky time in American History. Huck starts off by living with The Widow Douglas and her sister, Miss Watson, who is trying to Ã¢â¬Å"civilizeÃ¢â¬ him or make him to be what the perfect child should look like and make him act how a perfect child should act. Huck does not want that. He just wants to live how he wants, just like most youth want. In the novel, Huckleberry Finn befriends a runaway slave, Jim, and his adventures begin. According to Dennis Puopard, Mark Twain exposed many of the dark problems of antebellum United States. Some say Mark Twain wrote this episodic novel as a boysÃ¢â¬â¢ adventure story and that Huck is a character that children should look up to. (422) Modern readers do not see Huckleberry Finn as a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s book because the book is racist, there a themes of lying, and characters object and criticize authority. Because, modern readers see the book as improper for children The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is on the banned books list on many school in the United States. In The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn there are racial slurs, lies, and profanity. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is not a childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s book in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society because of the prominent theme of race. The topic of race and racism is strong in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. If a modern American citizen uses racial slurs against another race in a hurtful way that citizen would be convicted with a criminal offense. A racial slur such as the word Ã¢â¬Å"niggerÃ¢â¬ is not tolerable todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. The word Ã¢â¬Å"niggerÃ¢â¬ was used to belittle and dehumanize African American slaves, such as Jim, in antebellum United States. Through out the book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, author Mark Twain includes racial slurs such as the word, Ã¢â¬Å"niggerÃ¢â¬ toward African American characters, such as Jim and other slaves. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ËGood gracious! anybody hurt? Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ËNoÃ¢â¬â¢m. Killed a nigger. Ã¢â¬Ë Ã¢â¬ËWell, itÃ¢â¬â¢s lucky; because sometimes people do get hurt. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ ( Twain 109). This quote shows how the white society views Jim different then themselves. They view Jim as property rather than a human with a living breathing heart. This dialoged between two white characters just shows how hurtful and cruelly someone can sound just by taking. Barbra L. Jackson professor at Fordham University in New York City says, Ã¢â¬Å"It is hard to teach The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in a diverse class because of its racial views. Ã¢â¬ (63). If a college professor has a hard time teaching the book, The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, to her class, how can it be easy for high school students who are studding the novel, or even young boys whom pick up the book and start reading it? Also, Barbra L. Jackson says, Ã¢â¬Å"I always see a lack in participation, when studying the book, Ã¢â¬ ¦ the students do not want to read out loud,Ã¢â¬ (64). The students do not feel right saying Ã¢â¬Å"niggerÃ¢â¬ out loud because they do not want to offend any of their classmates. The students know that the word, Ã¢â¬Å"niggerÃ¢â¬ is a taboo in modern society. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn should not be taught or read to children because of the racial slurs. The type of racial language that Mark Twain uses in the book is offensive and crude. The exposure of the racial slurs to young children would be harmful. The young children will think it is okay to say the new words they discover from reading The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, which would get them into trouble in the future.
Monday, September 16, 2019
To adjust to greater competition and pressures of obtaining increased organizational efficiency and cost containment, many organizations have begun to examine strategies related to restructuring and downsizing to maintain organizational viability. These processes have included mergers and acquisitions, and redefining occupational roles of workers within the organization. Consequently, successful management of the structural change process can be daunting and overwhelming if not handled in an organized and thoughtful process. Those who are responsible for the process must recognize the barrier that may be hindrances to conception and implementation of the change process These barriers include: (a) lack of concise and coordinated planning/goals, (b) resistance to change within the organizational workforce, (c) failure to consistently evaluate the progress of the proposed change within context of the entire system, and adjust methodology as necessary. Thus, in order to achieve a balance between achieving organizational goals and addressing the uncertainty that may occur in the workforce, organizational leaders are tasked with the responsibilities of finding creative means to facilitate the mandated objectives while at the same time finding vehicles to maintain adequate levels of employee satisfaction and productivity in order to facilitate the ability to service their respective consumer base. It is the purpose of this paper to re-examine the fictional organization created in the week number four Culture Case Study I, and determine the means to facilitate a redesign in workforce brought on by a mandated reduction in work force. This paper will examine the concept of the universal worker as part of the proposed redesign, with further evaluation of the communications and organizational process that will have to be implemented in order to facilitate successful achievement of administrative goals and employee adoption of their new roles. Case Study In an attempt to achieve increased cost containment, six months after the merger of Charles Drew and Florence Nightingale Hospitals, the managerial hierarchy has proposed a significant reduction in workforce. Subsequently, a decision was made that the best way to facilitate continued safe patient care was to redesign the patient care delivery workforce. As recommended by the administration, the initial proposal for redesign was that of the universal worker. As understood, the paradigm of the universal worker would allow remaining employees to be cross trained in different job duties; thus, allowing more flexibility in staffing and personnel assignments (web. Answers. com, 2011). Through examination and implementation of the concepts of the universal worker, along with consideration of other strategies, the thought is that assigning additional duties to remaining personnel would allow continued adequate delivery of many support services. Past experiences in attempt to implement this type of change has proven to be met with resistance by personnel, and difficult to implement when introduced at other organizations; nevertheless, the administration has charged the mid-level management team with successful achievement of the proposed redesign in order to meet organizational objectives. The Change Process When beginning the process of job redesign within this organization, it will be important for those who are responsible for implementation of the change to understand the overall mission and goals of the organization and the global ramification of the change within the institution. It will be important to understand that a change in one area can have either a positive or negative impact on other areas within the organization (Leadership and Motivational Training, 2012). Thus, in viewing the potential upheaval that a reduction in workforce can create, and the subsequent potential for feelings of job insecurity that may be experienced by the remaining workforce, it will be important to allay these fears and allow enhanced empowerment of employees being affected by this process. This can be facilitated through inclusion of employees in the redesign process (i. e. implementation of work teams) and establishment of clear channels of communication within the system. Managing this process of job redesign and change can be successfully implemented through the initiation of a defined process to guide the change and an assigned change leadership team (Resnick, 2012). Through this process not only will the affected employees be allowed to have input to the process that will affect the their individual stake in the organization, they will also have the opportunity to implement substantial and lasting change for the overall system and the culture of then organization. As described by Peter Senge in his postulates regarding organizational culture, this inclusion, empowerment and open communication among those in leadership and front-line employees will work to facilitate what he described as the learning organization and systems thinking (Smith, 2001). Inclusion of work teams into the change process, and the subsequent implementation of the cross training of employees into various departmental roles, the concept of the universal worker among the care provision staff will allow the reshaping of the organization into one that has the flexibility to adapt to the rapid change that may be incurred, and foster an atmosphere of collegiality Ã¢â¬â where people are continually learning to see the whole together (Smith, 2001). Measuring Processes and Expectations Post RedesignÃ Once the redesign process has been completed it will be very important to implement measures to review the process of performance and if the predetermined goals of the change are being met. Since employees will potentially be relied on to increase performance and acquire additional employment duties, it will be important to examine how the implementation of change will impact employee satisfaction. It can be said that if an organization can meet the need for a satisfying work environment, then the employee will have a greater propensity to be more motivated and productive. As a consequence the satisfaction will have a greater correlation to improved outcomes and patient satisfaction. Examination of outcomes can be achieved through the Ã¢â¬Å"utilization of the creation of a balanced scoreboard-or dashboard- of the key internal and external measures that provide a comprehensive view of the organizations performance, with as much insight as possible regarding the implication of the change for the futureÃ¢â¬ (Resnick, 2012). Examples of these tools could include utilization of employee satisfaction surveys, provision of strategically placed employee eedback boxes to solicit employee input to parameters for ongoing improvement, and implementation of employee councils to examine how to best meet the needs for improving overall workplace satisfaction and employee morale. With completion of the tools for review of performance, the organization will have a balanced understanding as to how the implementation of the job redesign has impacted organizational goals and desired outcomes -i. e. decreased attrition rates of employees, decreased sick leave utilized, increased patient safety and patient satisfaction scores Ã¢â¬â (Ugboro, 2006) . Creation of a Learning Organization As the paradigm begins to change in the organization, and implementation of change becomes manifest within the organization, it will be important to foster structures that will provide for a cohesive and well-rounded workforce. As a result, it will be important that all employees have a thorough understanding of what is meant by a learning organization, and how this concept will be imperative e to the ongoing success of current and future change. As described by Peter Senge, the learning organization can be viewed as a structural environment in which the employee is empowered to create the outcomes that they truly desire. In this type of environment, the employee is allowed the room of creativity to redefine not only themselves within their organizational role, but also the organization itself. This paradigm shift differs from the previous downstream constricted organizational structures in that it moves the process for acquiring new organizational traits and skills from learning a means of survival to one that embraces learning that enhances the capacity to create and innovate (Smith, 2001). As such, this paradigm allows progress of the employee to have a greater role in obtaining self-actualization through growth of objectively understanding how change and the end-results of proposed change will affect the organization and the system as a whole. Additionally, it changes the view of management from one of overseer, to one of fostering learning opportunities and helping employees develop systemic understanding (Smith, 2001). In relation to the mandated job restructuring that will take place within this merged organization this change will be facilitated through the creation of interdisciplinary teams of care providers that will comprise the teams that will be responsible for the redesign of the care delivery model. In context of the proposed reduction of staff, it can be assumed that the employees affected by the ensuing change will be instrumental in facilitating this change if allowed to be part of the redesign of priorities and duties. Consequently, with each group bringing their individual and collective spheres of knowledge, there will facilitation of the exchange of ideas, expansion of personal mastery, enhancement of mental models, and a building of a shared vision. All of which are characteristic of the described learning organization. In this case, enactment of the concept to the universal worker will require cross training of employees into potentially new areas of responsibility, or areas in which personal mastery has not been achieved. As such, training can be perceived by employees as a measure of the organizations commitment to them. Subsequently, training is one of the most powerful vehicles for an organization to create change. As stated by Resnick (2012), Ã¢â¬Å"First, it builds alignment to the desired change. Second, it provides individuals with the knowledge and skills to implement the change. Third, it creates the opportunity for cross-functional communication in the implementation of company-wide initiativesÃ¢â¬ . As this process evolves, management can ensure that continual educational opportunities exist for employees to grow technically and professionally in their respective duties. As these opportunities are allowed, evaluation of individual mastery should be evaluated and opportunities for individual employees to become mentors or resources for fellow employees should be encouraged. By facilitation of this process of collaborative self-management, satisfaction within the process will be enhanced and peer-to-peer sharing can take place. This will allow greater cohesiveness among the teams and a greater sense of inclusion among all team members. As stated by Smith (2001), Ã¢â¬Å"when teams learn together, not only can there be good results for the organization, members will grow more rapidly than could have occurred otherwiseÃ¢â¬ . Measurement of Individual Satisfaction Measurement of individual employee satisfaction can be facilitated through many means. Standard traditional measurement tools could include employee surveys, employee feedback solicitation, and input gained during annual performance reviews. Although these means may allow the management team to gain greater insight to employee satisfaction with change, they are primarily founded in anecdotal response, and may be difficult of quantify. Thus, alternative measurements of satisfaction can be employed. These include monitoring of employee retention rates, review of utilization unscheduled employee leave, and patient provided satisfaction surveys. As indicated by Plowman (2009), Ã¢â¬Å"many studies suggest that the cost of turnover is on-and-a-half times an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s salary, when considering recruitment, selection, and training costs. Therefore, to monetarily measure the impacts of reduced turnover, one can calculate the expected cost of replacing employees who chose not to leave as a result of increased employee satisfactionÃ¢â¬ . Furthermore, enhanced patient satisfaction and outcomes may have a direct correlation to enhanced satisfaction in that increased individual productivity may be a sign of an employee who has taken ownership of his or her role in relation to change. Conclusion In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s environment of organizational change, and redefining of traditional job functions and roles, it is imperative to create new paradigms within the organizational structure. Along with the changing responsibilities for employees, management must provide the means to promote atmospheres of renewed learning and assist the empowerment of employees in actualizing the larger systemic needs of the organization, and their role in the facilitation of making lasting change. Successful implementation of these concepts, along with meeting the needs for maintaining employee fulfillment and satisfaction will be essential for the economic longevity of all business organizations that provide essential services to the public. Change and Culture Essay When two companies merge, upper management has many decisions to make about the organization, from what the mission statement will be, to what type of goals they have in mind to how many employees will be necessary to accomplish the goals. In the beginning, it is important to blend the two cultures and create the new organization. Six months after the merger of Cypress Creek Hospital and Clovis Community hospital, it was important to determine if the goals are met or if changes need to be made. In the instance of the organization from the first case study, it was decided that further change had to be made. To make the desired changes, administration has decided to reduce the current workforce significantly and to change how patients are tended to. Because the change is so detailed, the administration has recommended that a new position of a universal worker be created. The term Ã¢â¬Å"universal workerÃ¢â¬ generally refers to a person who is trained in multiple positions in the workplace and therefore has a little more assignments flexibility. Universal workers are often used in call centers and hospitals to alleviate staff shortages and provide better service without the difficulties of processing so many referrals or dealing with call transfers (webAnswers. com2013). It is imperative that in the role of universal worker, ways are found to redesign the current set up of the organization and make the necessary changes within the organization to meet the needs of the administration. Historically, organizations were set up where each person had a set task. When an organization incorporates universal workers in the workplace, it creates an environment in which few do a variety of tasks. In health care, this means that patients deal with fewer faces, and get used to their caregivers. For the organization, it means that a staff that can perform different roles and are even more valuable than they would be in traditional roles. Process of Redesigning Because the organization has decided that patients care delivery needs to be redesigned, it must be determined how to begin that process. The first thing that must be taken into account is that change in an organization often disrupts operation. In the instance were significant changes will be made in the size of the staff, adding more change typically will not be received well in the beginning. It is very important to plan accordingly so that productivity is not affected for a long time. One way to accomplish this is to make changes with staff involvement. If staff is allowed to give ideas and be part of the changes, it will fill their needs for learning, change, and variety. One way to do this is create different committees so that staff could be part of an even smaller team and be able to express their ideas and contribute to the change. Encouraging staff participation in planning how change is to take place, and the timing of that change appeals to the need for control that people innately have. Ã¢â¬Å"Organizations that regularly assess the person-job fit of their employees may in turn, experience important benefits from these healthy, thriving and motivated employees who individually redesign their own jobs if necessaryÃ¢â¬ (Tims, 2010). Redesigning in this way, by allowing staff to assist in it, allows the organization to go from being a series of smaller fragmented parts to being a group of fewer parts that function well together. In creating universal workers, the new management needs to go among the staff and see what each employee excels in and in what areas need further training if necessary. Management needs to get an idea of what the pulse is within the organization, have an idea of who is good at what, what jobs are not as necessary, what can be consolidated, what new positions need to be added and feel confident in his or her decisions so that the job redesign can be put into place. Work Processes and Performance Expectations When redesigning is done, the organization can expect to have their employees more satisfied in their work. People are more satisfied internally with their new responsibilities and are more satisfied in general. However, it sometimes makes people more dissatisfied with their current pay and benefits because they believe that they are doing more and that their pay and benefits should reflect those changes. Also the negative is that because people are given so much say in what they are doing when redesigning the workplace, they often become dissatisfied with their direct supervisors and management if something is not done to continue the autonomy that employees achieved with assisting in the redesigning. Job productivity goes up and goods produced tend to be better quality the pride that staff has in what they do. To ensure a more satisfied staff after redesign is complete, it is important not only to change the jobs of subordinates but even those in middle management so that everyone feels more satisfied and angry feelings do not develop among staff. If change happen were people are more satisfied, the organization will better for it. Further, change cannot happen and just come to a halt. Change is never constant; it has to continue to keep a learning organization on track. Steps and Structure to Change a Learning Organization Peter Senge, (1990), a learning organization is organization Ã¢â¬Å"where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expensive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspirations is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole togetherÃ¢â¬ (Senge,P. , 1990). According to Senge (1990), a learning organization excels in five different disciplines. A learning organization looks at long-term solutions, not necessarily the first solution that comes to their head. This is important because often organizations think of short-term benefits, and do not consider what changes will do to the organization long term. Because of this, a universal worker would do best to keep from making hasty decisions, and rather would create groups where people gather and look at things more on a long-term direction and see how the organization could be affected. Another thing that can assist in change would be encourage workers to continue learning, whether it be a seminar held for staff or encouraging people to continue with their education on their own time. In workplace today teamwork is encouraged in the workplace. People are no longer given tasks, and expected to do them on their own. Rather, working together, sharing ideas and being a team help an organization to grow. Another step that needs to occur is that leadership roles need to be looked at differently. Instead of leaders being seen in the traditional role of being Ã¢â¬Å"better thanÃ¢â¬ their subordinates or thinking for the staff, upper management roles need to changed to suit the changes in staff. Management needs to encourage learning, share the vision that leaders of the organization have. Management also needs to Ã¢â¬Å"create and manage creative tension especially around the gap between vision and reality. Mastery or such tension allows for a fundamental shift. It enables the leader to see the truth in changing situationsÃ¢â¬ (Smith, 2001). To create change, the entire organization needs to change, not just the subordinates. Change takes time but the benefits long-term are well worth the efforts. Satisfaction for Universal Worker The universal worker approach seems to enhance job satisfaction. Feedback from the staff indicates that they enjoy being responsible for the patients as whole rather than one aspect of care. It is a feeling that undoubtedly enhances the caregiverÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of job importance (Widdes, 1996). Training staff to assume responsibilities across departments and even more challenging, reshaping their attitudes and approach to care is an undertaking that requires a commitment to training, retaining and diligent follow up. To keep a universal worker happy would require giving such staff opportunities to continue growing. In healthcare, allowing staff to be responsible for different aspects of patient care, rather than doing just one simple, respective role brings satisfaction. People get bored doing the same thing day in day out. Allowing staff to do different things, creates an excitement for the job that they are doing and creates a feeling of responsibility, and pride in their job. However, because a universal worker does so many different tasks, the staff should be given incentives be it through raise or benefits or other methods, it is imperative that management be very much in tune with this philosophy. Otherwise, staff will begin to feel overworked, and underappreciated. Conclusion In conclusion, merging of two organizations into one organization can be a very difficult undertaking. If not done correctly, it can fail completely. Even if a merger is successful, it does not mean that changes will not have to be made to operations to bring further success down the line. Sometimes, staff needs to be cut, and new positions be created. This can create some turmoil within the organization if not handled right. It is important to communicate with everyone throughout, and allow staff to assist in building ideas, and making the changes, allowing them to share in some of the responsibilities that the organization will undertake. Creating autonomy, particularly when creating universal workers, is important to keep staff satisfied. Along with bonus, raise, benefits, or other incentives would be wise. If staff is satisfied, the organization runs smoother and is more profitable. Satisfaction from employees radiates onto the customers and creates the type of environment that one would prefer to do business with. Change can work correctly if the needs of staff throughout the change are kept in mind.